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169 Cards in this Set

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Early management examples

-construction of the egyptian pyramids


- Adam Smith's wealth of nations argues the benefits of division pf labor


-in the industrial revolution where it became more economical to manufacture in factories than at home

Various theories in the classical approach

-

-frederick Taylor studied manual work using scientific principles


-the gilbreths studies efficient hang and body motions


-fayol believed the functions of management were common to all business endeavors


=fayol developed 14 principles of management


-Weber described an ideal type of organization he called a bureauracy

development and uses of the behavioral approach

Early OB advocates believed that people were the most important asset of an organization and should be managed accordingly

hawthorne studies

dramatically affected management beliefs about role of people in organizations

Quantitative approach

involves applications of statistics, optimization models, information models, and computer simulations to management activites

TQM

a management philosophy devoted to continual improvement and responding to customer needs and expectations

Contemporary approach- two theories

systems approach and the contingency approach



systems approach

says that an organization takes inputs from the environment and transforms them into outputs that are distributes into the enviroent

contingency approach

says that organizations are different, face diff situations and require different ways of managing



omniptent view

managers are directly responsible for an organizations success or failure



sybolic view

much of an organizations success pr failure is due to external approaches outside of managers control

External enviroment

factors outside the organization that affect its performance including economic, demographic, politcal, sociocultural, technological, and global

7 dimensions of culture

attention to detail, outcome orientation, people orientation, team orientation, outcome orientation, aggressiveness stability, and innovation and is taking

Current issues in organizational culture

innovative culture, consumer-responsive culture, and workplace spirituality



workplace spirituality

counterbalance the stress and pressure of a turbulent life.

parochialism

veiwing the world solely through your own eyes and perpectives

polycentric attitude

managers in the host country know the best work approaches and practices for running their business

geocentric attitude

a world oriented view that focuses on using the best approached and people from arounfthe globe

EU

consists of 27 demographic countries

NAFTA

helps canada, mexico, and theUS straighten their global economic power

ASEAN

trading alliance of 10 southeast asian nations

WTO

monitors and promotes trade relationships

IMF anf World bank group

provide monetary support

organization for economic cooperation and development

assists its member countries with financial support

multinational corporation

an international company that maintains operations in multiple countries

multidomestic organizations

an MNC that decentralizes management and other decisions to the local country

a global organization

an MNC that centralizes management and other decisions to the home country

transitional organization

and MNC that has eliminated artificial geographical barriers

global sourcing

purchasing materials or labor from around the world wherever it is cheapest

licensing

give that organization the right to use the companies brand name, technology, or product specifications

franchising

using another companies name and operating methods

global strategic alliance

partnership between an organization and foreign company partners

joint venture

a strategic alliance in which partners agrre to form a separate, independent organization for some business purpose

foreigh subsidary

a direct investment in foreign country that a company create by establishing a separate and indecent facility or office

Hofstede 5 Dimensions of culture

individualism-collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, achievement-nurturing, and long-term/short-term orientation

GLOBE studies

nine dimensions for assessing country cutures

Workplace diversity

the ways in which people in an organization are different and similar to one another

workplace diversity is important because

1. people management benefits


2. organizational performance benefits


3. strategic benefits

Changing workplaces in US

-total increases in population


-changing components of racial/ethnic groups


-an aging population



Changing workplace in world

-total world population


-aging of that population

Bias

a tendency or preference toward a particluar perspective or ideaolofy

glass ceiling

refers to the invisible barrier that separates women and minorities from top management positions

Social obligation

a firm engages in social actions because of its obligation to meet certain economic and legal responsibilities

social responsiveness

when a firm engages in social actions in response to some popular social need

Green managemnt

when managers consider the impact of their organization on the natural environment



light green appriach

doing what is required legally, which is social obligation.



market approach

organization respond to the enviromental preferences of their customers


social responsiveness

stakeholder approach

organizationas respond to environmental demand of multiple stakeholder- social responsiveness



activist or dark green approach

organization looks for ways to respect and preserve the death and its natural resources


social responsiveness

8 steps in the decision making process

1.identify the problem


2. indentify decision criteria


3. weight the criteria


4. develop alternatives


5. analyze alternatives


6. select alternative


7. implement aplernative


8. evaluate decision effectiveness

Four ways managers make decisions

assumption of rationality:


-the problem is clear and unambiguous


-a single, well-defined goasl to be achieved


- all alternatives and consequences are known


-the final choice will maximize the payoff

satisficing

when decision makers accept solutions that are good enough

escalation of commitment

managagers increase commitment to a decision even when they have evidence it may have been a wrong decision

programmed decisions

repetitive deicsions that can be handled by a routine approach and are used when the problem being resolved is straightfoward,familiar, and easily defined

nonprogrammed decisions

unique decisions that require a custom made solution and are used when the problems are new or unusual- ambigious and incomplete info

certainty

a manager can make accurate decisions. all outcomes are known

risk

manager can estimate the likelhod of certain outcomes

uncertainity

manager is not certain about outcomes and can't make reasonable estimates

linear thinking style

characterized by a persons preference for using external data and process this information through rational. logical thinking

nonlinear thinking style

characterized by a preference for internal sources of information and processingthis info with internal insights, feelings, and hunches

calm waters metaphor

change in an occasional disruption and can be planned and managed as it haooend

white water rapid metaphor

change is ongoing and managing is a continual process

Lewis three step

unfreezing, chanfin, and refreezing

organizational change

any alternation of people structure or technology

planning

involves defining the organizations goals, establishing an overall strategy for achieving those goals and developing plans for organizational activites

four purposes of planning

providing direction, reducing uncertainty, minimizing waste and redundancy, and establishing the goals and standards used in controlling

long term plans

time from beyond three years

short term plans

one year or less

directional plans

flexible and set out general guidlines

standing plan

ongoing plans that provide guidance for activities performed repeatedly

traditional goal setting

goals are set at the top of the organization and then become subgoals for each organizational area

MBO management by objectives

setting mutually agreed upon goals and using those goals to evaluate employee performance

6 characteristics of goals

1. written in terms of outcomes 2. measurable and quantifiable 3. clear as to time frame 4. challenging but attainable 5. written down 6. communicated to those who need t know

dynamic enviroments

usually means developing plans that are specific but flexible

contemporary planning issue

involves using environmental scanning to help do a better analysis of the external enviromnt

strategies

the plans for how the organization will do whatever its in business to do, how it will comete succesfully, and how it will attract and satisfy its customers to achieve its goals

business model

is how a company is going to make its omny

six steps of the strategic management process

1. identify current mission 2. do external analysis 3. internal analysis (steps 2 and 3 are SWOT)4. formulate strategies 5. implement stratgies

growth strategy

when an organization expands the number of markets served or products offered, wither throught current or new businesses

stability strategy

when an organization makes no significant changes in what its doing

renewal strategies

retrenchment and turnaround- address organizational weaknesses leading to performance declines

BCG matrix

a way to analyze a companies portfolio of businesses by looking at a businesses market share and its industry anticipated growth rate. The four categories are: cash cows, stars, question marks, dogs



competitive advantage

what sets an organization apart, its distinctive edge

Porters five forces model

1.cost leadership 2 differentiation 3 focus

assesses the five competitive forces that dictate competition in an industry: 1. threat of new entrants, threat of substitutes, bargaining power of suppliers, and current rivalry

Porters three competitive strategies are:

cost leadership, differentiation, focus

cost leadership

competing on the basis of having the lowest costs in the industry

differentiation

competing on the basis of having unique products that are widely valued by customers

focus

competing in a narrow segment with either a cost advantage or a differentiation advanatage

strategic flexibility

the ability to recognize major external environmental changes, to quickly commit resources and to recognize when a strategic decision isn't working

controlling

the process of monitoring, comparing, and correcting work performance

three main steps in the control process

1. measuring involves deciding how to measure actual performance and what tto measure 2. comparing involves looking at the variation between actual performance and the standard 3. taking action can involve doing nothing, correcting the actual performance, or revising the standards

productivity

th output of goods or services produced by the inputs needed to generate that output

effectiveness

a measure of how appropriate organizational goals are and how well those goals are being met

tools used to measure organizational performance

feetfoward- controls take place before a work activity is done

concurrent controls

takes places while a work activity is being done

feedback controls

take place after a work activity is done

balanced scorecared

provide a way to evaluate an organizations performance in four different areas rather than the financial perpesctive

benchmarking

provides control by finding the best practices among competitors or noncompetittors and from inside the organization itself

corporate goverance

the system used to govern a corporation so that the interests of corporate owners are protected

6 key elements in organizational design

1 work specialization 2. chain of command 3. span of control 4 departmentalization 5. centralization-decentralization 6. formalization

mechanistic organization

a rigid and tightly controlled structure

organic oranization

highly adaptive and flexible

Whether is organic or mechanistic, is influenced by

overall strategy of the organization, size, technology used, degree of envirmoental uncertainity

simple structure

low departmentalization, wide son of control, authority centralized in a single person, and little formalization

functional structure

groups similar or related occupational speialities together

divisional structure

made up of separate business units or divisions

team structure

the entire organization is made up of work teams

matrix structure

assigns specialists from different functional departments to work on one or more projects being led by project managers

project structure

employees continuously work on projects

virtual organizaion

a small core of full time employees and outside specialists temporarily hired as needed to work on projects

network organization

uses its own employees to do some work activities and networks of outside suppliers to provide other needed product components or work processes

learning organization

one team that has developed the capacity to continuously learn, adapt, and change

internal collaborative

structural options include cross functional team, task forces, and communities practice

external collaborative

options include open innovation and strategic partnerships

contingent workers

temporary, freelance, or contract workers whose employment is contingent on demand for their service

two main organizational design challenges

keeping employees connected and managing global structural issues

job analysis

an assessment that defines a job and the behaviors necessary to perform it

job despription

a written statement of a job

job specification

specifies the minimum qualifications a person must posses to successfully perform a given job

major sources of job candidtes

internet, employee refereals, company web site, college recruiting, professional recruiting organizations

realistic job preview

gives an applicant a more realistic expectations about the job, should increase employee job satisfaction and reduce turnover

two types of training

general and specific

skill passed pay system

reward employees for demonstrated job skills and competencies

variable pay system

an emploees compensation is contingent on eperformance

stages of group development

forming, storming, normong, performing, and adjourning

cross functional team

composed of individuals from various specialities

virtual team

uses technology to link physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal

self managed team

responisble for a complete work process and manages itself

organization behavior focuses on three areas:

individual behavior, group behavior, and organizational aspects

cognitive component

refers to beliefs, opinions, knowledge or information held by a person

affective component

the emotional or feeling part of an attitutfe

behavioral compontent

refers to an intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something

job inolvement

the degree to which an employee identifies with his or her job, actively participates in it, and considers jonperformance to be important to self worth

organitzational commitment

the degree to which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership on that organization

big five model

five personality traits: extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and opens to expereince

the fundamental attribution error

the tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors

self serving bias

attribute our own successes to internal factors and blame personal failure on external factors

operant conditioning

argues that behavior is a fxm of its consequences

social learning theory

says that individuals learn by onserving what happens to the people

communication

the transfer of understanding and meaning

interpersonal communication

communication between two or more people

functions of communication

controlling employee behavior, motivating employees, providing a release for emotional expression of feelings and fulfillment of social needs, and providing info

informla communcation

is not defined by the organizations structural hierarchy

the chain

communication flows according to the formal chain of command

the wheel

communications flows between clearly identifiable and strong leader and others work in a work team

the all- channel

communcation flows freely among all members of a work team

two main challenges of managing communication in an internet works are

legal and security issues and lack of personal interaction

motivation

is the process by which a persons efforts are energized, directed, and sustained toward attaining a goal

energy element

measure of intensity, drive, or vigor

maslow's hierarchy

individuals move up the hierarchy of 5 needs (physiological, safety, social , steam, and self -actualization)



A theory X manager believes

that people don't like to work or won't seek out responsiility

a theory Y manager assumes

that people like to work and do seek out responsibility, so they will exercise self motivation and self direction

Herzbergs theory

proposed intrisic factors associated with job sati satisfaction were what motivated people. extrinsic factors associated with job satisfaction key people from being dissastisfied

three-needs theory

proposed thee needs that are major motives in work: need for achievment, need for affiliation, need for power

goal setting theory

says that specific goals increase performance, and difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher performance than easy goals

reinforcement theory

sayd that behavior is a function of its consequences

expectancy theory

says an individual tends to act in a certain way based on the expectation that the act will be followed by a desired outcome

equity theory

focuses on how employee compare their inputs-outcomes ratios to relevant others' rights

leader

someone who can influence others and who has managerial authority

leadership

a process of leading a group and influencing that group to achieve its goals

Fiedler's model

attempted to define the best style to use in particular situation

Hersey and Blanchards sitautional theory

focussed on followers' readiness

path-goal model - robert house

indetified four leadership behaviors: directive, sopportive, participative, and achievement -oriented

leader member exchange theory LMX

says that those in the in-group will have higher performance rating, less turnover, and great job satisfation

transitional leader

exchanges rewards for productivity

trasnformational leader

stimulated and inspires followers to achieve goal

visionary leader

able to create and articulate a realistic, credible, and attractive vision of the future

team leader has two priorities:

manage the teams external boundary and facilitate the team process

5 sources of a leaders power:

legitmate, coercive, reward, expertm ad referent