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68 Cards in this Set

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Patient HM

Inability to transfer STM to LTM = distinction (MSM)

Harlow

Monkeys isolated still chose wire for comfort (LT)

Fox

Raised and fed by nurses, still attached to parents

Schaffer and Emerson

Attached to most responsive (LT)

Ainsworth (1967)

Uganda, UK/US used mothers are secure base. Sensitive mother = secure attachment (cultural)

Tronick et al.

African infants all displayed monotropy (cultural)

Takahashi

No avoidant, high resistant. Japanese infants rarelt seperate from their mothers (cultural)

Grossman and Grossman

German infants tended to be avoidant, German culture interpersonal distance (cultural)

Hazan and Shaver

Secure: trusting Avoidant: fears closeness Resistant: Preoccupied by love (SS)

Cooper et al.

Circle of Security project 32% to 40% (SS)

Ainsworth et al.

Inter-rater reliability .94 agreement (SS)

Main and Weston

SS dependent on parent, only measures relationship between PC and child (SS)

Ainsworth et al.

20% infants 'cried desperately' (SS)

Prior and Glaser

S: achievement, independent A: aggressive R: anxious, withdrawn

Sensitivitity hypothesis (Ainsworth)

S: accepting, cooperative A: rejecting, paid no attention R: unresponsive to crying, preoccupied (SS)

Hodges and Tizard

During critical period, no attachment = difficulty with peers (Bowlby)

Lorrenz

Goslings imprinted on first living thing, attachment = adaptive

Grossman and Grossman

Key role for fathers (Bowlby)

Rutter

All equally important, one single working model (Bowlby)

Kagan

Temperant hypothesis, innate personality easy/difficult to bond (not innate desire) (Bowlby)

Bowlby

MISCA

Ainsworth (1978)

The Strange Situation

Pickle

Video salon, wallet gun chicken, threat = irrelevant, usualness of item important (weapon focus/anxiety)

Johnson and Scott

Con1: pen con2: knife, heated discussion 50 photos 1: 49% 2: 33% (weapon focus/anxiety)

Christiansen and Hubinette

58 irl witnesses, some threatened, threatened = higher accuracy, bc emotional arousal (anxiety)

Parker and Carranza

Primary/college, mock crime, identify offender from line up, primary more likely to select and make mistake

Yarmey

Young woman stopped 651 15 secs, 2 mins later recall characteristics, 18-29 30-44 45-65 best in younger adults

Anastasi and Rhodes

18-25, 35-45, 55-78 24 photos varying ages, rate attractive, short filler, identify original 24, more likely to recognise own age group (age/own age bias)

Loftus and Palmer 1

45 students, different films, how fast when hit/smashed/bumped/collided/contacted, smashed = 40.8mph contacted = 31.8mph

Loftus and Palmer 2

3 groups, smashed/hit/no question, 1 week, crit: any broken glass? Smashed = higher est and more likely to assume

Hitch and Baddeley

Dual task, 1) CE 2) AL OR CE/AL OR NO TASK took longer in 1 when using AL/CE in 2. using same component causes difficulty (WMM)

Baddeley et al. 1975a

Word length effect. Phonological loop is 2 secs

Baddeley et al. 1975b

Visual tracking task and either 1) angles on F or 2) verbal task 1 = more difficult (WMM)

KF

Verbal bad, visual good, forgetting auditory greater than visual, damage limited to loop not sketchpad?

Logie

STM relies on LTM (MSM)

Glanzer and Cunitz

20 words, any order, remembered beginning/end, end = STM beginning = LTM (evidence for displacement and seperate stores) (MSM)

Craik and Tulving

Meaning/structure, immediately after (in STM) semantic = better, MSM said auditory/visual in STM (MSM)

Rothbaum et al.

Western = autonomy Japanese = dependence (SS)

Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg

Meta-analysis, 32 studies, 8 countries, secure most common, variation within 1.5x greater than between, innate/biological

Keyword method

Associates 2 pieces of info, visual image to trigger recall? Associations

Loci

New info associated with place/journey

Acronyms

Initial letters of other words, association/chunking

EPPE Study

3000 UK children, 3-11, longer in daycare = more aggression (teacher rated) earlier = increased aggression, increased sociability low quality care = aggression

Field

Amount of time in daycare positively correlated to no. of school friends

Creps and Vernon-Feagons

Starting DC before 6 months = more sociable

Glidden

Verbal mnemonics good for learning difficulties children

O'Hara

Visual good for older adults

Craik and Tulving

Deep processing remembered better than not elaborated (techniques)

NICHD study

1300 US children, from infancy to 15, age 5 in DC = more assertive, disobedient, aggressive, full time DC 3x more likely to show behaviour problems, over 30 hours a week = school behaviour problems HOWEVER 83% attending 10 to 30 hours p/w did not show higher aggression levels

Czech twins

7 years locked up by step mother, couldn't talk, 2 loving sisters, age 14 = near normal intellectual/soc functioning, 20 = above average intelligence, good relations. HOWEVER attached with each other? (Privation)

Genie

Room until 13 and a half, thought retarded, couldn't stand erect or speak, socially inept, however, due to age discovered or privation? Retarded from birth?

Rutter et al.

165 Romanian orphans, longitudinal 4, 6, 11, 15 years old, adopted at 6 months = 'normal' emotional development (compared to UK - control group 52 UK adopted children) over 6 months = disinhibited attachment and peer problems

Baddeley (1966)

List of words acoustically/semantically different, STM = semantic best LTM = acoustic best (ENCODING)

Hodges and Tizard

Longitudinal, 65 institutionalised children when under 4 months, assessed 4, 8, 16, homes had strict policy against CG forming attachments, adopted/restored, 70% could not care deeply about anyone, both had peer problems, unlikeable bullies, sought attention indiscriminately (sign of disinhibited attachment) adopted = positive relations with parents resorted = less likely to attach

Bahrick et al.

400 pps, PR 15 years = 90% 48 years = 70%, FR 15 years = 60% 48 years = 30% (DURATION LTM)

Miller

Magic of no 7 plus or minus 2, 7 dots on screen better remembered than 15, chunking helps (can recall 5 words as well as 5 letters) (CAPACITY)

Köhnken et al.

53 studies meta-analysis, 34% more accurate with CI than standard

Milne and Bull

Each individual component tested, recall lower than 4 simultaneously

Kebbell and Wagstaff

CI takes too long, police use own to limit

Memon et al.

Police not always effectively trained in CI

Peterson and Peterson

Consonant syllable followed by 3 digit no, retention interval, recall syllable and countdown, 3secs = 90% 18secs = 2% (DURATION STM)

Yerkes-Dodson Law

Physiological arousal improves memory to certain extent (EWT anxiety)

Soho Family Centre London

Understands importance of secondary attachment figures, each carer responsible for 3 children (NICHD FOUND 1:3) (ROBERTSON'S FOUND GOOD SUBSTITUTE CARE CAN COUNTERACT)

Secure attachment type

Harmonious/cooperative interaction, unlikely to cry if CG leaves room, seeks prox, easily comforted, occasionally reluctant to leave CGs side, secure base

Avoidant

Little response to separation/reunion, no seeking prox, doesn't cling or resist being put down

Turner and Lloyd

Romanian orphans: 1/3 recovered well, privation alone does not always negative negative outcomes, poor subsequent care?

Tizard

Not enough evidence to show long term effects of privation, did not contact a large enough group of children later in life, may just be that institutionalised children need more time than normal to mature

Resistant

Ambivalent, immediate and intense distress on separation, conflicting desires