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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


exchange of gases.


movement in and out

External respiration

in lungs, O2 absorbed into blood/capillaries, CO2 excreted.

Internal respiration

gas exchange between blood in capillaries + tissue fluid.

Cellular respiration

gaining energy, in mitochondria

Air entering lungs must be...

warm, humidified, filtered

Air in alveolar sacs

100% humidified

clean- no bacteria


Conducting zone

no gas exchange!

bronchi + bronchioles.

Respiratory zone

gas exchange!

alveolar ducts + sacs

Type 2 pneumocyte secretes


Function of surfactant

keep alveoli open, stops collapsing when exhaling.

Function of cartilage

keeps airways open.

Function of mucus glands

sticky + wet, trap bacteria/foreign bodies.

Function of smooth muscle

allows control of air flow.

Amount of air in lungs at end of normal expiration

functional residual capacity

Air will enter lungs only if

alveolar pressure is less than barometric pressure.

Force on lungs (FL)

causes them to collapse.

arises from elastic recoil + surface tension of wet alveoli.

Force on rib-cage (FCW)

causes it to spring outward.

arises from stretched tissues in sterno-costal and costo-vertebral joints.


elastic fibres are lost from alveolar walls.

results in increased lung compliance.

Tidal volume

total volume of air moving in and out lungs in a single breath.


how readily the lung inflates

(change Volume/ change P)


how much air can pass through vessel in 'x' time.

Dead space (VD)

volume of the conducting airways.

at rest= 150mL

Respiratory distress syndrome

lack of pulmonary surfactant.

difficulty inflating lungs.

sufficient pressure must be overcome - elastic recoil + surface tension.


bronchiolar constriction.

decreased radius= increase resistance.

increased muscular effort

Pulmonary edema

increased diffusion distance.

"water on the lung"

decreased gas exchange.