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90 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Blood supply/ Drainage of the Cervical Esophagus
esophageal brances of the vertebral and inferior thyroid arteries
Inferior thyroid veins
Buccinator Muscle
Innervated by VII.
Pterygomandibular raphe to obicularis oris
Keeps food from accumulating in the vestibule.
Pierced by both parotid duct and V3 (V3 gives mucosal sensation to the internal aspect of the cheeks)
Define which parts of the large intestine are retroperitoneal
everything except the transverse and sigmoid colon
AKA Mesocolon - have own messentaries
Venous drainage Lg intestine/Rectum
SMV/IMV - Portal system
HTN = Hemmhoroids
middle inferior rectal veins -canal system via internal illiac veins
Palatopharngeal muscle
descends from the soft palate
blends posteriorly with the longitudinal fibers of the salphingophargeous muscle and the pharngeal constrictor muscle
Both make palatopharyngeal folds or arches
Palatoglossal muscle
descend form the soft palate to the base of the tongue covered with mucosa (fold)
Tongue muscles innervates by
XII Hypoglossal except for palatoglosis
Recal paralysis of XII - tongue deviates to the ipsilateral side
Arterial Supply Nervous system Ileum and Jejunum
posterior abdominal wall via vast mesentary
Duodenal Jejunal Junction to the iliocecal junction
Mesentary also transmitts Nervous suppy
Histology of the small intestine
Villi/Microvilli Simple columnar epithelium enterocytes, gobletcells that cover villi
CRYPTS of Leiberkuhn
Epithelium replaced 3-5d
What cervcal nerves hitch a ride with the hypoglossal nerve?
C1 and C2 send ventral rami and C2 send spinal sensory rami along XII to the superior root of the cervical ganglion
Parietal Mucosa
Oxyntic Cells
Walls of Pits
Secrete HCL
I eat apples at 8, 10 and 12
Esophageal hiatus T10
Thoracic Aorta T12
Palintine tonsil is bounded by
Oral mucosa and between the palatoglossal folds anteriorly and palatopharyngeal folds posteriorly
Pyloric mucosa
Less branching of glands
less mucus secretion
G- Cells gastrin secretion
Posterior 1/3 of the tongue (innervation and Lympatics)
Lymphoid tonsil
IX (glossopharyngeal) sensation and taste
Voluntary external anal sphincter
Fibers of levator ani and external longitudiunal muscularis blend to give rise to the EAS

S2-4 Pudendal Nerve
Nervous supply of the stomach
PSN Vagal trunks(A+P)
SN celiac plexus supplied by t5-t9GSN and some X
Inferior margin of the cricoid cartlidge
Through the mediastinum to the esophageal hiatus (T10)
Differances between ileum and Jejunum
number and size of Plicae circularis decrease and are absent as make way to ileum
Jejunum larger diameter and thicker walls more vascular( fewre tiers of arcades longer vasa recta
Ileum Peyer Patches
Anatomical location of jejunum duodenal junction
Few CM left of L2
Suspensory ligament of Treitz
Involuntary Internal Anal Sphincter
Thickened internal circular part of the muscularis of the distal anal canal
Blood supply / drainage of the Thracic esophagus
Neighboring intercostal arteries/ superior phrenic arteries
Azygous hemiazygous and accesory hemizygous veins
Large intestine Arterial suply SMA
ileocolic artery distal ileum appendix cecum and proximal ascending colon
R colic artery distal ascending colon
Middle colic artery Transverse
Waldayer's ring
Palatine, lingual pharyngela tonsil(Adenoids) within the superior aspect of the nasopharnyx
Lg intestine Arterial supply IMA
L colic artery descending colon
Sigmoidal arteries sigmoid colon
Superior rectal artery Preoximal rectum
What papillae with the foramen cecum divide the tongue into anterior and posterior
Vallate Papillae divide the tongue into 2/3 anterior and 1/3 posterior
The four Muscles oof Mastication (Innervation and Action)
All innervated by V3, Temporalis elevates & closes Masseter elevates & protrudes
Medial Pterygoids elevates side to side grindage
Lateral Pterygoids depresses chin to open jaw
Formation of the Common Bile Duct
Union of the cystic duct and the common hepatic ducts( L+R Hep's)
Hepatoduodenal Ligament
Portal vein joins hepatic artery and Common bile duct within the hepatoduodenal ligament

Part of the lesser omentum between liver duodenum and stomach
Ligamentum Venousum
obliterated ducus venosis
exits porat hepatis and runs in another fissure toward left hepatic vein
Relevence of the cecum
1st part of the Lg INtestine appendix projects off the cecum and assumes a retrocecal position
Innervation of the Lg intestine
Sympathetic- SUP/INF messenteric plexus
PSN cecum ascending and Transverse colon - X
Pelvic splanchic nerves carry the rest of the Lg intestine
Histology of the Lg Intestine
Simple Columnar epithelium
enterocytes goblet cels and simpe tubular glands for mucus
shed every 3-5 days
Nervous supply of ileum and jejunum
SN Celiac plexus
The four intrinsic muscles of the tongue
inferior longitudinal
Location of the rectosigmoid junction
within the pelvis at the level of S3
Rectum and Pelvic floor
Composed of the levator ani
Retro peritoneal rectum continues inferiorly with the anal canal
Puborectalis muscle sling narrows rectal ampulla into anal canal
Rectum Histology
Simple columnar epithelium but characteristic mucosal folds are absent in the rectum and anal canal
Distal to canal at anal verge epithelium is replaced by anoderm(modified perianal skin)
diaphragmatic muscle surrounds esophageal hiatus acts as sphincter at level of the Z line(esophagus and stomach meet)
Body and fundus
Simple straight tubulesin glands
mucus secreting cells cover luminal surface and pits
Anterior 2/3 of the tongue
V3 gives sensation and VII gives taste
Base of the tongue
X gives general and taste to small area of the base of the tongue
What 5 muscles of facial expression act on the lower lip?

Depressor Anguli Oris
depressor labi inferioris
Falciform Ligament
anterior attached to anterior abdominal wall divides Left and right lobes
Arterial Supply Ileum and Jejumum
SMA gives 10-15 jejunal ileal branches to arcades and Vasa recta
Ileocolic artery distal ileum and cecum; appendix and proximal ascending colon
SMV drains ileum and jejunum to splenic V to portal vein
Ligamentum Teris Hepatis
Umbilical vein remnant
ligaments free inferior border then goes into fissure owards the porta hepatis located on inferior surface of liver
mostly serous
submandibular triangle of anterior cervical triangleempties to floor of the mouth on either side of frenulum
All Muscles of facial expression are innervated by Crainal Nerve
XII ( Facial)
Peptic Mucosa
Chief Zymogenic
Base of pits
secrete Pepsin
Parotid gland
Superficial lateral surface of face and ear
duct pierces buccinator to 2nd maxillary premolar
Floor of the mouth empties directly into floor of the mouth on either side of frenulum
Pathway of Bile to the Gall bladder
Liver L+R Hepatic Ducts - CBD to the cystic duct to the GB
caudate lobe
posterior and R of the ligamentum venosum
R of the IVC
Blood supply/ Drainage of the Abdominal Esophagus
L inferior phrenic and gastric arteries
L inferior phrenic and gastric veins
PORTAL Varicies (HTN)
Posterior mediastinum
Azygous vein
Thoracic Duct
Locaion of the acessory pancreatic duct
Superior to the major papilla via the Minor Duodenal papilla of Santorine
quadrate lobe
anteriorly immediately to the right of the LTH and immediately left of GB
Arterial Supply of the stomach
All off the celiac
L gastric
Hepatic - R gastric
Splenic L gastroepiploic
Hepatic -- Gastroduodenal- R Gastroepipolic
Relevance of teris hepatis and venosum
divide the L+ R into quadrate and caudate lobes
Describe Deglution
Initiation is voluntary(tongue meets palate to push bolus)
Involuntary coordinated contractions(peristalsis -pharngeal plexus Motor X and XI; Sensory IX)
Bolus moved int laryngopharnyx and then to esophagus
Glands responsible for neutralizing Chyme
Brunner's glands
Venous Stomach
All follow arterial goes portal
What 5 muscles of facial expression act on the upper lip?
Levator aguli oris
Zygomaticus Major
Zygomaticus Minor
Levator labii superioris Alaque Nasii
epiglottis to inferior margin of the cricoid cartilidge posterior to laryngeal inlet
What are the four parts of the duodenum
1 Superior
2 Descending(Bile+Pancreatic sec via CBD)
3. Horizontal
4.Ascending(partially Retroperitoneal no mesentary)
Innervation of the esophagus
X RL motor via GVE ( esophageal plexus)
After Diaphragm LARP
Thoracic sympathetics a little
Encircing fibers of cricopharyngeal muscle closed during breathing to preclude air from passing
The four extrinsic muscles of the tongue
Contrast the difference between muscle in pharnyx to esophagus
Pharnyx innner longitudinal and outer circular (Skeletal)
Flipped in the esophagus
The thirds:
Upper Skeletal
Middle Mixed
Lower Smooth
Thoracic Duct Vs. Right Lymphatic duct
Right Duct: R thoracic cavity/Head/Upper limb
Thoracic duct all else
Tania Coli
Circumferential sheet of longitudinal muscle that coalesce and radiate from the base of the appendix
Tania help form HAustra which increase the SA of the colon.
Gastric epiploae are fatty projections attached to the Tania
Significance of the rectosigmoid junction with respect to the tania coli
Tania spread out to envelope the rectum and anal canal in a continous circumferential sheet
Trace the path of the large intestine
Ascending colon on R side up to R hepatic/colic flexure to transvers to L splenic or colic flexure to descending colon to sigmoid colon and anal canal
Arterial/Venous supply & Drainage of the Duodenum
Hepatic artery gives rise to Supraduodenal, gastroduodenal and A+P superior pancreatoduodenal.
SMA gives rise to A+P inferior Pancreatoduodenal arteries
Venous via portal system
Pathway of bile to the Duodenum? Pancreatic Duct?
GB - Cystic- CBD to the DUodenum via Major Duodenal Papilla
Major pancreatic duct joins CBD and passes behind and through oragn proximal to the duodenal wall via the Ampulla of vater
Simple columnar glandular epithelium
Etoh absorbed here
Pg 100 Mini Moore
Trace the path of portal blood
Portal blood to Sinusoids to Hepatocytes to Central vein to Hepatic Canal Veins to IVC
Vascular supply of the liver
Portal blood recieves all of the vascular supply of the abdomen

Hepatic artery 1 of three branches of the celiac (L+R supply the whole liver)
Vascular supply of the Gall bladder
Supplied by the cystic artery usually a branch off the R hepatic artery
Innervation of the Liver
Sympath Celiac Plexus
Endocrine Histology of the Pancreas
Islets of Langerhas
Alpha Glucagon
B insulin
Delta Somatostatin
Gamma unknown
porta hepatis
center posterior beteen 2 ligaments the gall bladder and the IVC
Lg intestine arterial supply
Internal illiac arteries
Middle rectal arteries - rectum
Inferior pudendal arteriy -
inferior rectal arteries -rectum also passes medially acoss the ischianal fossa to the anal canal or anus
Non Portal Drainage of the liver
Few central veins drain liver to the IVC prior to prior to piercing the diaphragm
Define Portal Triad
Hepatic Artery
Portal Vein Branch
Few Bile Ductules

Recall: Functional Unit is the lobule (hepatocytes surrounding a central vein)
Genaeral Anatomical Location of the Pancreas
Poterior abdominal wall; head, neck and uncinate process tucked into c-shaped duodenum anterior to the IVC and Abdominal Aorta. Body and Tail are tucked into hilum of Spleen
Histology of the Pancreas

Lobulated exocrine cells arranged around tiny central excratory duct aka Acini
Extensive duct system drains alkali enzyme rich fluid into main acessory ducts

Vascular supply and innervation of the Pancreas
Celiac give rise to the Hepatic arteries and Gastroduodenal which give rise to superior A+P pancreatoduodenal

Splenic gives off branches

SMA elaborates inferior A+P pancreatoduodenal


Sympth Celiac ganglion
The oral cavity is anatomically divided into what two locations/boundries. Histologically composed of
1. The vestibule (Space between the lips, gums , gingivae and teeth)
2. Cavity proper(anteriorly by the teeth and gingivae; pallete and the base of the tongue posteriorly)

Stratified Squamous epihelium
Obicularis Oris
facial muscle found around the circumference of the lips