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8 Cards in this Set

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CAFFEINE

-trimethylxanthine alkaloid w/ mild diuretic and stimulant properties


-theobromine, similar secondary product found in chocolate and cola, stronger diuretic


-important calming agent; 250-300mg caffeine calm overactive child, 1973 study



COFFEE

-small tree native to highlands of ethiopia


-fruit two seeded red berry


-seeds "beans", of fruit are extracted, fermented, dried and roasted

TEA

-large shrub, native to SE Asia, cultivated in china, japan, sri lanka and india


-evidence for use as beverage dates back at least 3000 years in china


-british later dominated European trade in green (and later black) tea, by 1790s over 20 million pounds of tea shipped annually to england


-produced from new, young leaves, hand harvested


-shrubs pruned back to facilitate harvesting, promote new growth


-green tea; partially shredding, quickly drying leaves


-black tea: leaves slowly dried for one day, shredded, dry slowly under cool damp conditions, material then dried or fired - black colour

YERBA MATE

-medium sized tree, native to sub tropical SA


-tea-like beverage produced from dried leaves of the tree


-young, newly emergent leaves are clipped, dried, and ground into powder


-popular caffeinated beverage in SA


-served in traditional cap (mate) fashioned from a dried gourd


-1/3 filled with powdered leaf, rest hot water


liquid then drawn through metal straw-strainer, bombilla

GUAYUSA or AMAZONIAN HOLLY

-large, 30m high holly tree native to amazonian forest of northern peru an adjacent ecuador


-closely related yerba mate tree


-highest known caffeine content


-used ritualistically by achuar jivaro people, men drink up to 2 litres/day, men much less


-heavy doses caffeine, lead to number of adverse effects; severe headache, bloodshot eyes, even mild hallucinations


-men avoid symptoms by inducing vomiting 45 min after binge drinking

COCA, CACAO or CHOCOLATE TREE

-small understory tree native to tropical SA widely cultivated in west aftica


-initial stage of chocolate production, beans are extracted from mature fruit, fermented for a few days


-fermented seeds sun dried


-fermentation and drying steps are critical, result in chemical changes


-dried beans stored, shipped NA and Europe for processing


-chocolate contains 2-3% theobromine, stimulant similar to caffeine


-oldest evidence of chocolate consumption, mayan drinking it 1500 ya


-1st major shipment of cocoa, 1585

COLA

-medium sized tree native to humid tropical rainforests of west-central africa


-closely related to cocoa tree


-pod-like fruit contains 8-12 bitter tasting seeds


-principle stimulant is caffeine, theobromine is also present


-cola flavouring, extracted from cola using hot water


-beans chewed as oral stimulant in west africa, particularly Niger and Nigeria


-beans initially bitter tasting, sweeter as they're chewed


-mild stimulant to relive hunger pais, relief of various ailments

GUARANA

woody climbing plant


native tropical SA


initially used by Satere Maue tribe Amazonian Brazil to produce caffeinated beverages


roasted red/black seeds high in caffeine


cultivated widely as shrub in manaus region amazonian brazil


carbonated beverages containing guarana very popular in brazil


main stimulant ingredient in "high energy" beverages