Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/105

Click to flip

105 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What is Leptin, and what is its function?

Peptide hormone secreted by adipose tissue. It interacts with the arcuate nucleus in the hypothalamus, and activates the a-MSH neurons (which decreases hunger) and inactivates NPY neurons.


Leptin stimulates these neurons through JAK-STAT pathway.


The neurons will react with releasing NE to bind to adipose tissue, B3-receptor --> PKA will be activated.


(Same pathway as glucagon)

What are the two unique things PKA does after being activated by Leptin?

1. Phosphorylates perilipin, a protein which usually prevents lipids from being broken down in adipose tissue. When phosphorylated by PKA will perilipin no longer protect the lipids, so that enzymes can degrade it.




2. PKA increases expression of the gene for incoupling protein, UCP. Less energy will then be used for generating ATP, and more energy goes out as heat because of this mitochondrial uncoupling.

Ghrelin and its functions?

Peptide hormone produced by ghrelinergic cells in the GI-tract.


Has opposite effect as Leptin, it makes you feel hunger and metabolize less.

PPARs and their function?

Nuclear receptors in cytosol that function as transcription factors when they bind their ligand, such as drugs or fatty acids.


When bound to a ligand, they bind to another protein, Retinoid X receptor (RXR).


Ligand-PPAR-RXR complex then travels in to the nucleus and bind to a response element, a DNA sequence that either increase or decrease transcription of certain genes.

What is the function of PPARγ?

PPARγ is the target for thazolidinedione, a drug used to treat type 2 Diabetes by increasing PEPCK in adipose tissue, so the adipose tissue can produce more glycerol to produce more fat, which ultimately lowers the blood glucose.

What is the function of Agrin?

Agrin involved in the formation of the neuromuscular junction.

In what disease is amyloid precursor protein (APP) important?

Alzheimer's disease.

What is the function of α-Synuclein and which diseases is it important in?

α-Synuclein is the precursor for Lewy bodies and is involved in diseases where Lewy bodies are present, like Parkinson's and dementia.

What is the function of Parkin and which disease is it important in?

Parkin inhibits the proteasome when mutated and contributes to Parkinson's disease

In what disease is Huntingtin involved in and what is the molecular mechanism of the disease?

Huntingtin causes Huntington's disease when its gene is mutated to contain too many CAG sequences.

What is the function of Frataxin and which disease is it important in?

Frataxin is involved in formation of iron-sulphur clusters and is involved in Friedreich's ataxia.

What is the rheumatoid factor and which disease is it important in?

Rheumatoid factor is an autoantibody that targets the Fc region of IgG antibodies. It is involved in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

What is the function of SIRT proteins and which pathway are they important in?

SIRT proteins are protein deacetylases which activates pathways that decrease ROS production. They're a part of the response against oxidative stress.

What is the function of Nrf2?

Nrf2 is a transcription factor for anti-oxidant responses in the cell.

What is the function of Bcl-2 and which pathway is it important in?

Bcl-2 is an anti-apoptotic protein, so it inhibits apoptosis.

What is the function of BAD, BAX and BAK and which pathway are they important in?

BAD, BAX and BAK are pro-apoptotic proteins involved in the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis.

What is the function of DIABLO and which pathway is it important in?

DIABLO is a protein released from the mitochondria as a part of the instrinsic apoptotic pathway.

What is the function of AIF and which pathway is it important in?

AIF is a protein released from the mitochondria as a part of the instrinsic apoptotic pathway.

What is the function of EndoG and which pathway is it important in?

EndoG is a protein released from the mitochondria as a part of the instrinsic apoptotic pathway.

What is the function of cytochrome c in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway?

Cytochrome C is released from the mitchondria as part of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. It forms a complex with a APAF-1 called the apoptosome, which activates the caspase cascade.

What is the function of APAF-1 and which pathway is it important in?

APAF-1 binds to cytochrome c after it has been released from the mitochondria. Together they form the apoptosome which activates the caspase cascade.

What is the function of cathepsins and which pathway are they important in?

Cathepsins are proteases involved in autophagy.

What is the function of CDK and which pathway is it important in?

CDK (cyclin-dependent kinase) phosphorylates proteins when bound to Cyclin to regulate the cell cycle.

What is the function of cyclins and which pathway are they important in?

Cyclins are needed for CDKs to regulate the cell cycle.

What is the function of Jun and Fos and which pathway are they important in?

Jun and Fos are transcription factors important for the cell cycle regulation.

What is the function of retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and which pathway is it important in?

Retinoblastoma protein inhibits the transcription factor E2F when double-stranded DNA damage is present. pRb is a tumor suppressor.

What is the function of E2F and which pathway is it important in?

E2F is a transcription factor important in the cell cycle.

What is the function of ATM and ATR and which pathway are they important in?

ATM and ATR are activated when there is double-stranded DNA damage, and they activate p53.

What is the function of p53 and which pathway is it important in?

p53 is a transcription factor that increases transcription of a protein called p21. p53 is a tumor suppressor. p53 is also involved in senescence.

What is the function of p21 and which pathway is it important in?

p21 inhibits the CDK-cyclin heterodimer. p21 is a tumor suppressor and is also involved in senescence.

What is the function of ErbB and which pathway is it important in?

ErbB is the receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGF). It's often mutated in cancers, so ErbB is a proto-oncogene.

Where can we find neurexin and neuroligin, and in which disease are these proteins impaired?

Neurexin and neuroligin can be found in the synaptic cleft, and they are impaired in the case of autism.

What is the function of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and 9?

MMP2 and MMP9 cleave gelatin and type IV collagen.

What is the function of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 3?

MMP3 activates the other MMPs.

Which proteins can inhibit matrix metalloproteinases?

TIMPs (reversible inhibition) and α2-macroglobulin (irreversible inhibition) inhibit matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).

What is the function of plasmin?

Plasmin activates MMP3.

What is the function of aquaporin 2, and by what hormone and by which kinase is it activated?

Aquaporin 2 is a water transporter in the kidney which reabsorbs water from the filtrate. It is activated by Protein Kinase A in response to the hormone vasopressin (AVP).

What is the function of Tau and in which diseases is it important?

Tau stabilizes microtubules in cells of the nervous system. Tau is regulated by phosphorylation, and hyperphosphorylation of tau is involved in taupathies like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

What is the function of kinesins and dyneins?

Kinesins and dyneins are motor proteins that travel on microtubules.

What are the functions of PEX5 and PEX7?

PEX5 and PEX7 are found on the peroxisome surface and are the receptors for PTS1 and PTS2. They're involved in protein transport to the peroxisomes.

What is the function of p16?

p16 is a tumor suppressor involved in senescence.

What is the function of SGLT1 and where is it found?

SGLT1 is the glucose and galactose transporter in enterocytes.

What is the function of SGLT2 and where is it found?

SGLT2 is the glucose transporter used for glucose reabsorption in the kidney.

What is the function of GLUT5 and where is it found?

GLUT5 is the fructose transporter in enterocytes.

What are the functions of albumin?

Albumin is found in the blood and has three functions:




- Protein, hormone and fatty acid transport


- Buffering


- Maintaining oncotic pressure

What is HbA1c and how is it formed?

HbA1c is hemoglobin with a glucose attached to the β-chain. Its levels in the blood corresponds to the long-term average blood glucose.




It's formed by non-enzymatic glycosylation of hemoglobin.

What are the pro-apoptotic BH3 domains proteins?

BAD, BAX and BAK.

What is the structural difference between the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins and the pro-apoptotic BH3 domains proteins?

The anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins have a BH4 domain while the pro-apoptotic BH3 domain proteins don't.

What is the substrate of Janus Kinase (JAK)?

The substrate of JAK is STAT.

What is the function of PTEN?

PTEN is an enzyme that catalyses the reverse reaction of PI3K and therefore inhibits PDK1 and PKB. It is a tumor suppressor.

What is the function of Ras?

Ras is a small GTPase that activates cell proliferation as part of the insulin pathway. It's a proto-oncogen.

What is the function of Rab?

Rab is a small GTPase that is involved in transport vesicle formation and transport of GLUT4 to the cell membrane. It's a proto-oncogen.

What is the function of Ran?

Ran is a small GTPase that is involved in transport in and out of the nucleus. It's a proto-oncogen.

What is the function of Rho?

Rho is a small GTPase that is involved in the cell cycle. It's a proto-oncogen.

Name three reaction that have ammonia (or ammonium) as a substrate.

Glutamine synthetase


Carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1


Glycine synthetase.

How does vitamin C deficiency lead to scurvy?

Vitamin C is an essential cofactor for proline and lysine hydroxylases. These enzymes are essential for proper collagen production.

Name three toxins that works by ADP-ribosylating proteins in a human cell.

Cholera toxin


Pertussis toxin


Botulinus toxin

What is the mechanism of CAG expansion in Huntington's disease?

The gene for the protein Huntingtin is mutated so that it contains more than 28 repeats of the CAG sequence. This causes insertion of many glutamine into the protein which makes it dysfunctional.

Which transcription factor is responsible for how insulin decreases expression of gluconeogenetic enzymes?

FOXO1.

Which enzyme is used by periportal hepatocytes to remove ammonium from blood?

Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1

Which enzyme is used by perivenous hepatocytes to remove ammonium from blood?

Glutamine synthetase

List three enzymes that produce H2O2 in the body.

NADPH oxidase 4


Superoxide dismutase


Xanthine oxidase

What is the function of prealbumin?

Prealbumin transports thyroid hormones and retinol in the blood.

What are the acute phase proteins?

The acute phase proteins are α1-antitrypsin, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, fibrinogen, and C-reactive protein.

What is the function of prothrombin and which electrophoretic group does it belong to?

Prothrombin is essential in blood-clotting and belongs to the α1-globulin electrophoretic group.

What is the function of α1-antitrypsinand which electrophoretic group does it belong to?

α1-antitrypsin is a protease inhibitor that prevents damage to tissues made by proteases produced by neutrophils. It belongs to the α1-globulin electrophoretic group.

What is the function of α1-fetoprotein (AFP) and which electrophoretic group does it belong to?

α1-fetoprotein (AFP) is the fetal form of albumin. It belongs to the α1-globulin electrophoretic group.

What is the function of ceruloplasmin and which electrophoretic group does it belong to?

Ceruloplasmin is the carrier of copper in the blood. It also inactivates reactive oxygen species. It belongs to the α2-globulin electrophoretic group.

What is the function of haptoglobin and which electrophoretic group does it belong to?

Haptoglobin binds free hemoglobin to prevent it from being filtered into the urine and to inhibit free hemoglobin's oxidative activity. It belongs to the α2-globulin electrophoretic group.

What is the function of α2-macroglobulinand which electrophoretic group does it belong to?

α2-macroglobulin is a protease inhibitor and also acts as a transporter protein for several proteins like insulin and TGF-β. It belongs to the α2-globulin electrophoretic group.

What is the function of C-reactive protein (CRP) and which electrophoretic group does it belong to?

C-reactive protein binds to cell membranes of bacteria and dead cells and activates phagocytosis and the complement system. It belongs to the β-globulin electrophoretic group.

What is the function of transferrin and which electrophoretic group does it belong to?

Transferrin is the transporter of iron in the blood. It belongs to the β-globulin electrophoretic group.

What is the function of β2-microglobulinand which electrophoretic group does it belong to?

β2-microglobulin is a component of the MHC I molecule. It belongs to the β-globulin electrophoretic group.

What are the gammaglobulins and which electrophoretic group do they belong to?

The gammaglobulins are the immunoglobulins (antibodies, IgG, IgE ..) They belong to the γ-globulin (gamma-globulin) electrophoretic group.

Which plasma protein is involved in hypersensitivity type 1?

IgE is involved in hypersensitivity type 1

What is the molecular mechanism of prion diseases?

Prions are proteins that are folded in a special way that cause normal cellular proteins to be misfolded and lose their function when the prion comes into contact with it.

What is the molecular mechanism of (β-) amyloidosis?

Amyloidosis is caused by proteins that misfold and expose their β-sheets that aggregate with other proteins to form fibrils called amyloids.

In what disease is the protein PrP involved?

The PrP protein is mostly found in the central nervous system and is usually in the C-form. However, an Sc-form also exist that causes PrP proteins to form aggregates which cause neurodegradation and a type of prion disease.

What is the function of floppase and which protein family does it belong to?

Floppase moves phospholipids in the cell membrane from the cytosolic (inner) leaflet to the outer leaflet. It belongs to the ABC transporter family of proteins.

What is the function of CFTR and which protein family does it belong to?

CFTR is a chloride ion channel. It belongs to the ABC transporter family of proteins.

What is the function of flippase and which protein family does it belong to?

Flippase moves phospholipids in the cell membrane from the outer leaflet to the cytosolic (inner) leaflet. It belongs to the P-type ATPase family of proteins.

What protein family does the Na+/K+ ATPase belong to?

The Na+/K+ ATPase belongs to the P-type ATPase family of proteins.

What protein family does the H+/K+ ATPase belong to?

The H+/K+ ATPase belongs to the P-type ATPase family of proteins.

What protein family does the lysosomal proton pumps belong to?

The lysosomal proton pumps belong to the V-type ATPase family of proteins.

What protein family does the ATP synthase in the mitochondria belong to?

ATP synthase belongs to the F-type ATPase family of proteins.

What is the function of mTOR and how is it activated?

mTOR is involved in protein synthesis and is activated by PKB

Which plasma protein is involved in hypersensitivity type 2?

IgG involved in hypersensitivity type 2.

Which plasma protein is involved in hypersensitivity type 3?

IgG involved in hypersensitivity type 3.

Which cells produce primarily histamine?

Basophils and mast cells produce primarily histamine.

What is the signal sequence for proteins targeted for transport to lysosomes?

Mannose 6-phosphate is the lysosomal signal sequence.

Name three taupathies.

Alzheimer's disease


Parkinson's disease


Pick's disease

Which three enzymes can break down alcohol and where are they located?

- Alcohol dehydrogenase in cytosol


- Catalase in peroxisomes


- CYP2E1 in ER

What are the cofactors of alcohol dehydrogenase?

NAD+

What are the cofactors of CYP2E1?

NADPH + O2

What are the cofactors of catalase?

H2O2

Name 3 lysosomal storage diseases

Tay–Sachs disease


Niemann-Pick disease


Krabbe disease

Name 3 disorders of collagen

Scurvy


Osteogenesis imperfecta


Alport syndrome

Name the key events of the ER overload response.

1. Ca2+ release from ER


2. ROS production


3. NF-kB activation

What molecular event is essential in classical conditioning in the snail Aplysia Californica?

Phosphorylation and inactivation of K+ channels by PKA

What is the function of Arp2/3 complex?

Arp2/3 complex catalyzes branching of actin.

What is the function of formin?

Formin initiates polymerization of actin.

Which molecules are involved in secretin mediated release of pancreatic enzymes?

Secretin receptor, adenylyl cyclase, cAMP and PKA are involved in release of pancreatic enzymes.

Name two molecules that causes pathology in Alzheimer's disease.

Neurofibrillary tangles and β-amyloids cause pathology in Alzheimer's disease.

What are neurofibrillary tangles?

Neurofibrillary tangles are aggregates of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein.

Name two ABC transporter proteins

Floppase and CFTR are ABC transporter proteins.