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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Ethan Zuckerman

-Became fellow of the Berkman Center for Internet & Society (Harvard) in Jan 2003

-Focus on impact of technology on the world

-Nerdy as f*ck

Tim Berners Lee

-Devised coding that made World Wide Web possible

-Invented WWW

Fiber Optic Cable

-Light pulses at phenomenal rates of transmission


-Messages broken into bits


-Screens out non-essential parts of messages


-Messages can be segmented for downloading


-Wireless internet transmission


-Uses existing frequencies for more bandwidth capacity

Mesh Networks

-Every wireless device serves as a transmitter and receiver for every other wireless device

Web Advertising Measurements

-Measures Hits, Visits, Page Views, Time on Site

Four eras of journalism

-Colonial, Partisan, Penny, and Yellow Press

Colonial Period

-Benjamin Harris published first colonial Newspaper, Publick Occurrences, in Boston in 1690

-John Peter Zenger

Benjamin Harris

-Colonial Period

-Published first colonial Newspaper, Publick OCcurrences

John Peter Zenger

-Colonial Period

-Most Famous

-Publisher of the New York Weekly Journal

-Accused and tried for libel against British Gov

-Arrested and burned printing press

-Innocent (he told the truth)

-Super important to pave way for independent press in America

Partisan Period

-The Federalist period in American history

"The federalist papers" debating shape of the American constitution published at this time

-Government should keep hands off press

-News media should comment on public issues

-Government transgressions against the news media will be met by public rejection

Penny Press Period

-Benjamin Day in 1833 started The New York Sun

-Penny a copy, affordable

-James Gordon Bennett organized first newsroom reporting staff

-Industrialization (steam powered press)

-Urbanization (workers flocked to cities)

-Immigration (from Europe)

-Literacy (Increasing)

Benjamin Day

-Penny Press

-Started the New York Sun in 1833 when he was 22

James Gordon Bennett

-Organized first newsroom reporting staff

-Hired reporters and sent them out to gather information for his New York Herald

Yellow Period

-Joseph Pulitzer, poor immigrant, made St. Louis Post-Dispatch into a financial success

-William Randolph Hearst

-Yellow Kid, Yellow Journalism

Joseph Pulitzer

-Poor immigrant who made St. Louis Post-Dispatch into a financial success

-Decided to try bigger city in 1883 (NY)

-Brought New York World and applied his formula

-Emphasized human interest, worth cause, promotional hoopla, solid journalism

-Star reporter Nellie Bly (epitomized the two faces of Pulitzer)

-Hired cartoonist to combat Hearst

William Randolph Hearst

-Young admirer of Pulitzer

-Father's mining fortune mimics Pulitzer's formula

-Bought New York Journal and vowed to "Out-Pulitzer" Pulitzer

-Hired cartoonist that was combated by Pulitzer

Spanish-American War

-Pulitzer and Hearst promoted trumped up stores about conflicts between Span and America.

-Both claimed Maine explosion was Spanish attack

Modern Journalism

-Built on basic principles established during the four eras of journalism

News Hole

-Space left for news after the ads

News Flow

-Quantity of events worth covering

Non-Newsroom Influences on News

-Corporate Policy

-Pressure from Sources

-Pressure from advertisers

Current Journalism Trends

-Nonstop Coverage

-Live News

-Unedited Blogs

-Soft News

Public Relations

-Persuasive communication tool the people can use to motivate other people and institutions to help them achieve their goals

Ivy Lee

-Founder of modern public relations, for counsel on gaining public support

-Hired by railroad execs and then coal mine operators in 1906 to change image and then hired by Rockefeller after the Ludlow Massacre

-Industries should move towards openness

Ludlow Massacre

-Violent deaths of 20 people, 11 children during attack by the Colorado National Guard on a tent colony of 1,200 striking coal miners and their families

George Creel

-Headed PR push during WW1

-Directed flow of gov. propoganda

-Issues of censorship, news manipulation, and public's "right to know"

-Task to convince a divided country of the wisdom of Wilson's decision to join the war against Germany

-Established a system of voluntary press censorship

Elmer Davis

-Headed PR push during WW2

-Appointed director of United States Office of War Information by Roosevelt in 1941

-Recommended Jap-Americans be permitted to enlist for service in Army and Navy

United States Office of War Information

-Headed by Elmer Davis in WW2

External Relations

-Messages for related industries or persons

Internal Relations

-Messages for employees, managers, unions, shareholders

Media Relations

-Messages for the masses via mass media

Public Relations Services

-Publicity and Promotion


-Political Communication

-Image Consulting


-Event Coordination

-Crisis Management

Differences Between Public Relations and Advertising

-PR is part of the management structure

-Sales is the bottom line in advertising

-Advertisers buy their time; PR pros work with the media

-Institutional Advertising is a hybrid of advertising and public Relations

4 Types of Media Relations

-Open Media Relations

-Proactive Media Relations

-Ambivalence in Media Relations

-Adversarial Media Relations

Professionalism in PR

-PR has a tarnished image that stems from shortsighted promotion and whitewashing techniques of the late 1800s

Nellie Bly

-Stunt Journalism

-Age of the Mad house

-Around the World

-Went to IUP

-Pulitzer published her in NY

William Caxton

First English person to work as a printer.Introduced the printing press to England.First printed flyer ad in 1468

Benjamin Day

Introduced The New York Sun, the first penny press newspaper. Found that lowering price to a penny would increase readership

Wayland Ayer

Advertising pioneer.Revolutionized the industry bu making the advertising firm an active agent for the advertiser.

George Gallup

Founded the Institute of American Public OpinionThis is now a $5 billion a year business

Walter Lippman

wrote "Public opinion" and said we see the world as "pictures in our head" influenced by the media

Harold Laswell

studied propaganda during WWI and believed in Bullet or Hypodermic Theory

Paul Lazarfeld

Studied voter behavior and created the Two Step Flow Theory

Fourth Estate

Phrase coined by Edmund Burke