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73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
microbe that causes disease
material (from a pathogen) that induces an immune response
innate (natural) immunity
rapid, non-specific immune response
adaptive (acquired) immunity
slower, specific immune response
blood cells
specialized blood cells that mediate adaptive immunity
Primary lymphoid organs
where the cells of the immune system arise
secondary lymphoid organs
where the cells of the immune system interact with antigens
primary lymphoid organ for T-cell development
bone marrow
primary lymphoid organ for B-cell development
Primary lymphoid organ for T-cell development
Bone marrow
primary lymphoid organ for B-cell development
Lymph node
collect antigens from tissues
collects antigens from blood stream
innate immune cells
macrophage, neutrophils, and dendritic cells
Adaptive immune cells
T-cells and B-cells
T-helper cells
regulates other immune cells
T-cytotoxic (killer) cells
kill infected cells
produce antibodies (immunoglobulin)
dendritic cells and macrophage
directly kill microbes by phagocytosis and other mechanisms. They also help to activate T-cells
NK cells
lymphocytes that have characteristics of innate/adaptive immunity
macrophage function
phagocytosis and activation of bactericidal mechanisms; antigen presentation
dendritic cell function
antigen uptake in peripheral cells; antigen presentation
mast cell function
release of granules containing histamine and active agents
neutrophil functions
phagocytosis and activation of bactericidal mechanisms
Eosinophil function
killing of antibody-coated parasites
basophil function
unknown function
Immune effector mechanisms:
1. phagocytosis
2. cytotoxicity (cellular killing)
3. complement
4. antibodies
group of serum proteins that can directly kill pathogens
proteins secreted by B-cells that bind directly and specifically to pathogens. Antibodies target pathogens by marking them for destruction by other components of the immune system
The Danger Theory
pathogens cause damage to tissues, which leads to the release of alarm signals that trigger immune responses
Pattern recognition theory
pathogens contain molecular patterns that differ from host cells "pathogen-associated molecular patterns" or PAMPs. These can be recognized by immune cells using specific receptors
small secreted peptides that used for intracellular communication between cells of the immune system. Can turn on/off immune responses; mediate inflammation
subset of cytokines that specialized in regulating cell motility
a complex series of events induced by tissue damage
neutrophils (white blood cells) are attracted to bacterial chemical products like the peptide f-LMP
Powerful methods for detecting and quantitating proteins and cells based on the highly specific binding of antibodies (immunoglobulin)
2. Western blot
3. Flow cytometry
Western blot
Separate proteins by size using SDS-PAGE gel
Transfer gel to blotting membrane
Probe membrane with antibody specific for protein of interest
Detect bound antibody by chemiluminescence
originally isolated from frog skin based on their ability to kill bacteria; small polypeptides secreted at mucosal surfaces; direct bacteriocidal properties
Phagocytosis steps
1. bacterium attaches to membrane
2. bacterium is ingested, forming phagosome
3. phagosome fuses with lysosome
4. lysosomal enzymes digest the bacteria
5. digest material is released from cell
programmed cell death
a transcription factor which binds to antibody genes
toll-like receptors (TLR)
what are the non-covalent forces that hold antigen and antibodies together?
1. electrostatic forces
2. hydrogen bonds
3. van der waals forces
4. hydrophobic forces
three-dimensional face of an antigen which makes contact with the antibody
conformation epitopes
only epitopes when in their native form
binding itself prevents pathogenesis
enhances phagocytosis
Predominant Ig in serum
4 subclasses (1-4)
Important for opsonization, complement activation, ADCC
Crosses placenta to protect fetus
pentameric (decavalent)
Pentameric structure held together by J-chain and disulfide bonds
First Ig produced in response to infection
Good at complement activation
dimeric predominant Ig in secretion
Transported across epithelial cells via poly-Ig receptor
10 g of IgA secreted/day, more than any other Ig
Found in breast milk, supplies passive immunity to baby
present in very low amounts in serum
Binds to Fc receptors present on mast cells and basophils
levels increase in setting of parasitic infection
Can transfer allergy between individuals
a substance that elicits an immune response
substance that is recognized by the immune system
a small molecule that by itself cannot induce an immune response but can be an antigen
Factors affecting immunogenicity:
1. foreigness
2. size
3. complexity
4. susceptiblity
5. genotype of host
6. route of administration
7. dose
polyclonal antibodies
antibody preparation from immunized animals. Consist of complex mixtures of different antibodies produced by many different B-cell clones
monoclonal antibodies
homogenous antibody preparation produced in the laboratory. Consist of a single-type of antigen binding site, produced by a single B-cell clone
refers to the strength of bind of single epitope to single antigen binding site
strength of binding; affected by both affinity and the valence of the interaction (number of interacting binding sites)
things that enhance the immunogenicity of antigens by: triggering the innate immune system, slowing release of antigen, promoting phagocytosis of antigen
secondary antibodies
antibodies that bind to other antibodies
isotypic determinants
secondary antibodies that recognize portions of the constant regions that are characteristic of a particular antibody isotype
allotypic determinants
secondary antibodies that recognize portions of the antibody that are variable between different individuals (different allotypes) in the species
idiotypic determinants
some secondary antibodies recognize unique portions of the variable domain of the antibody: the antigen-binding sites (idiotypes). Anti-idiotypic antibodies are rare
relatively short nucleotide sequences within ~200 bp of transcriptional start site that initiate transcription in a certain direction
nucleotide sequences located upstream or downstream of a gene that activated the promoter in an orientation independent manner
12/23 rule
only gene segments flanked by RSSs with dissimilar spacers can undergo VDJ recombination wtih one another.
functions of complement
1. opsonization
2. provoke inflammation
3. poke holes in membranes of bacteria
4. clear immune complexes
5. activate antigen-specific B-cells
classical pathway (complement)
antigen-antibody complexes
lectin pathway
mannose binding lectin or ficolin binds carbohydrates on pathogen surfaces
alternative pathway
pathogen surface
B-cell specific transmembrane protein; Ig superfamily member, large cytoplasmic domain binds to signaling molecules; associates in membrane with CR2, alters signaling properties of BCR