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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Franz Gall

Developed phrenology, believed that if a portion of a person's mental trait was well-developed, the skull would bulge in a corresponding location

Pierre Flourens

First person to study major sections of the brain using extirpation (ablation) where portions of the brain are surgically removed and the behavioral results are observed. Also discovered that removal one part of the brain affects the whole brain.

William James

Father of American Psychology, he believed it was necessary to study how the brain functions in response to the environment. (Functionalism)

John Dewey

Criticized the theory of the research arc, believed that psychology should focus on the study of the organism as a whole as it functions to adapt to its enviroment

Paul Broca

Examined behavioral deficits of people with brain damage. He connected lesions to specific brain impairment.

Herman Von Heimvoltz

First person to measure the speed of a nerve impulse by way of reaction time. He successfully brought psychology into the realm of natural sciences

Charles Sherrington

First inferrred the existence of synapses. He mistakenly believed that transmission was via electrical means, but we know now that transmission occurs via chemical means

Human Nervous System
Web of 100 billion cells that communicate coordinate and regulate signals for the rest of the body
Sensory Neurons
Transmits sensory information from receptors to spinal cord and brain
Motor Neurons
Transmits motor information from brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands
Found between other neurons. Most numerous of the three types of neurons. Located predominantly in the brain and spinal cord. Often linked to reflexisive behavior.
Reflex Arc
Neural circuit that allows multiple receptors to transmit corresponding information to allow two or more actions to occur simultaneously
Central Nervous System (CNS)
First of the two primary components, comprised of the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Second of the two primary components, comprised of nerve tissue and fibers outside of the brain and spinal cord, connects the CNS to the rest of the body and can be divided into somatic and autonomic nervous systems
Somatic Nervous System
Sensory and motor neurons distributed through skin, joints, muscles
Sensory Neurons
Transmit information through afferent fibers
Motor Neurons
Transmit information along efferent fibers
Afferent Neurons
Ascend towards the brain
Efferent Neurons
Exit the spinal cord to go to the rest of the body
Autonomic Nervous System
Regulates vital body functions such as heartbeat, respiration, digestion, glandular secretions, body temperature. Regulation of these functions are independent of conscious control.
Sympathetic Autonomic Nervous System
Fight or flight. Activated by stress.
Parasympathetic Autonomic Nervous System

Conserves energy, manages digestion. In direct opposition to sympathetic Nervous System.

Responsible for parasympathetic responses
Parasympathetic Responses
Constricts pupils, stimulates flow of saliva, constricts bronchi, slows heartbeat, stimulates peristalis and secretion, stimulates bile release, contracts bladder
Sympathetic Responses
Dialates Pupils, decreases saliva production, relaxes bronchi, increases heart rate, decreases digestion, stimulates glucose production, inhibits bladder contraction, releases epinephrin, secretes adreneline

Thick sheath of connective tissue that helps protect and anchor the brain; as well as absorb cerebral fluid

How many layers are there of meninges?
Three. The dura mater, the arachnoid mater, the pia mater
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CF)
Aqueous solution in which the brain and spinal cord rest, produced by specialized cells in the ventricles of the brain
What are the layers of the skull from skin to brain?
Skin, periosteum, bone, dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater
What are the three subdivisions of their brain and their related functions?

Hindbrain, responsible for vital body function such as heart rate, balance, digestion, breathing, and blood pressure.

Midbrain, receives sensory information from the rest of the body, associated with involuntary reflex responses via colliculi

Forebrain, responsible for higher cognitive and behavorial functions

What are the portions of the forebrain?
Medulla Oblongota, Pons, Cerebellum
What are the portions of the midbrain?
Superior Colliculus, Inferior Colliculus
What does each colliculi receive?

Inferior Colliculus receives auditory stimulus

Superior Colliculus receives visual stimulus

What are the parts of the forebrain?
Thalamus, Hippothalamus, Pineal gland, Cerebral Cortex, Basal Ganglia, Limbic System, Posterior pituitary gland
Define Neuropsychology
The study of functions and behaviors of a specific section or sections of the brain
What are different methods of neuropsychology?

Extirption (creation of a lesion in the brain)

Cortical mapping (stimulating particular neurons via electrical impulse yielding a specific response relative to the portion of the brain that was effected

Electroenchephalogram (EEG) allows broad patterns of brain activity to be recorded and measured by placing electrodes on the scalp

Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) detects neural activity based on increased blood flow to relevant portions of the brain.

What types of scans can be done using rCBF?
PET scan, MRI, CT scans can be used to create images of the brain using rCBF