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12 Cards in this Set

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Thepool of workers who do not own the means of their livelihood, but instead whomust find employment provided by the owners of capital


Germanphilosopher, economist, sociologist, historian, journalist, and revolutionarysocialist.

Bornon 5 May 1818

Class theory

•Thepremise that the history of all existing society is the history of classstruggles.

•Accordingto this view, ever since human society emerged from its primitive andrelatively undifferentiated state it has remained fundamentally divided betweenclasses who clash in the pursuit of class interests.


Marxbelieved that those who owned capital (capitalists) form a ruling class whereasthe majority of the population make up the working class

Marx - Capitalism

•Althoughowners of capital and workers are dependent on one another (capitalists needlabour and workers need wages), the dependency is highly unbalanced

•Therelationship between classes is an exploitive one as workers have little control over their labour and employers are able to generate profit by takingthe product of the workers’ labour


Base refers to the forces and relations ofproduction, which applied to all the people, relationships between them, theroles that they play, and the materials and resources involved in producing thethings needed by society


Superstructure,quite simply and expansively, refers to all other aspects of society. Itincludes culture, ideology (world views, ideas, values, and beliefs), norms andexpectations, identities that people inhabit, social institutions, thepolitical structure, and the state (the political apparatus that governssociety)

Marx - The Family

Amarxists views the family not as functional for its members or for society generally but forthe capitalist system and the rich ruling class who according to Marxists havemost to gain from that system.

Thefamily produces labourcheaply in that wives are not paid directly for bearing the children or fortheir upkeep

Marx - Women

Wives provide a range of servicesfor their husbands at far less than their market value. If wives were paid fairwages for all of these services, employed husbands would also have to be paidmuch more which would reduce the profitability of capitalism.

Accordingto Marxists they are a Reserve Army of Labour which can be hired when work isplentiful but dismissed relatively easily


Communism isa society in which private property and social classes do not exist and thegovernment owns all things necessary to make and transport productsbody.

Everyone has equal amounts of land, equalsized houses, the same government-issued cars, the same government-issuedstoves, the same government-issued mobiles, etc.

means of production:

those things that are needed for production to take place (eg. tools, machinery, raw materials and factories)


Those who, because they do not own means of production, must sell their labor time to capitalists in order to get access to those means.