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165 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is salinity associated with?
major constituents
6 ions make up more than 99% of the salts dissolved in seawater
What are the major constituents?
4 are cations: sodium, magnesium, calcium, potassium
2 are anions: chloride and sulfate
conservative constituents
component of seawater that changes bcuz of mixing, diffusion, and advection.

Ex.) Salinity
nonconservative constituents
value changes b/c of biological or chemical processes as well as by mixing, advection and diffusion.

Ex.) nutrients, oxygen in seawater
sources of salt
*crust and interior of earth, molten magma from volcanic processes
*hydrothermal activity found at mid-ocean ridges
adherence of ions and molecules onto a particle's surface, removes other ions and molecules from seawater.
formation of new crust at ridge system of deep-ocean floor participates in....
the input and output of the ions in seawater
The removal of ions and molecules from sea water through adherence to a clay particle is termed:
The principle of constant proportion:
States that the ratio of major ions does not change with salinity
The depth that represents equilibrium between oxygen and carbon dioxide production is termed the ________ depth
principle of constant proportion
regardless of variations in salinity the ratios btwn the amounts of major ions in open-ocean water are constant
measures electrical conductivity
conductivity of water is affected by what?
salinity and temperature
saturation concentration
max amount of any gas that can be held in solution. changes b/c it depends on salinity, temp, and pressure.
saturation concentration increases and decreases
if temp or salinity decreases, the SC for gas increases
if pressure decreases, the SC decreases
euphotic zone
depth of water column where there is sufficient sunlight for growth of photosynthetic organisms
compensation depth
depth where rate of photosynthesis balances rate of respiration.
How can oxygen be added to the ocean?
exchange with atmosphere or as a waste product of photosynthesis.
Carbon Dioxide Level
rate at which the oceans absorb CO2 is controlled by water, temp, pH, salinity, chemistry of ions, and biological processes, as well as mixing and circulation patterns.
pH of seawater
the higher concentration of CO2 in H20, the lower the pH and more acidic it is.
The process of reverse osmosis in desalination:
is replacing older distillation plants in water poor areas.
Arrange the following constituents in seawater in order from highest to lowest concentration:
chloride, sodium, sulfate, magnesium, calcium, potassium
The oceans have a well-mixed surface layer approximately ______ meters thick.
If you mix two samples of water with different temperatures and salinities but the same density, you will produce a mixture that has:
A higher density
The depth of the mixed layer is greatest in the:
Downwelling occurs in areas of:
Surface convergence
The Indian Ocean is unique because it:
Is a Southern Hemisphere Ocean.
Overturn occurs when the:
Density at depth is less than the density at the surface.
Thermohaline sinking of dense water occurs:
Along downwelling zones.
Upwelling of deep water:
Provides nutrient rich water to marine plant life.
Isotopic tracers in the oceans:
can provide a measure of the rate of movement of water in the oceans. Make use of radioactive substances produced in atmospheric nuclear test. Provide data for modeling water pathways in the oceans. Are accurately described by each of the above.
The Lomonosov Ridge divides the _____ Ocean basin.
The densest water in the oceans is _______ water.
Antarctic bottom
The water mass identified by one T-S point rather than a curve, is _____ water.
Antarctic bottom
CTD sensors measure which of the following characteristics?
An area where temperature rapidly changes with depth is known as the:
The densest water body is the oceans is:
Antarctic bottom water.
Name the four layers of the atmosphere, from the lowest to the highest.
troposphere, stratosphere,mesosphere, thermosphere
The layer of the atmosphere that produces surface winds and weather is the:
Air density increases when:
It cools.
On a non-rotating Earth model:
air over the equator warms, rises, and heads polewards. cool, dry air settles at the poles and moves equatorwards. surface winds in the southern hemisphere are south winds.
The Coriolis effect results from:
lower rotational velocities at higher latitudes.
Air moving over the surface of the Earth:
is deflected to the right in the northern hemisphere.
Bands of winds blowing toward the equator are called the:
trade winds.
The region near the equator of calm or unsteady winds is called the:
The satellite-based instrument that detects wind speed and direction from ocean waves is a:
The winter monsoon in Asia is characterized by a:
cool, dry offshore wind.
Hurricanes in the northern hemisphere:
need a sea surface temperature of at least 27oC to form.
The control of precipitation patterns associated with elevation changes is called the _________ effect.
Storm surges:
may be amplified along shallow shores.
Which of the following is the correct order of the layers of the atmosphere from highest to lowest?
troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere
Order the constituents of the atmosphere from highest to lowest concentration.
nitrogen, oxygen, argon, hydrogen
Which wind system moves from west to east between 30º and 60º north and south latitude?
During an El Niño event:
atmospheric pressure is lower than normal along the west coast of South America.
Large scale ocean surface currents are...
are deflected by the same Coriolis effect as the atmosphere.
How do you describe the patterns of ocean gyres?
at latitude 10-15 degress are driven westward by the trade winds
Gyre currents reflect the equilibrium point between gravity and Ekman transport known as __________ flow.
In the Pacific Ocean, the currents flowing towards the equator are the:
California and Peru
The net flow of surface water from the South to the North Atlantic is balanced by which current?
North Atlantic Deep Water
Wind driven open-ocean surface currents....
speed up when moving through narrow gaps.
Which of the following is a western boundary current?
D)Gulf Stream *
Eddies are packets of water that:
may maintain their physical and chemical identity for weeks.
Ekman transport:
-describes net flow of water set in motion by the wind.
-moves 90 degress to the direction of the wind.
-moves right of wind direction in NH
Eddies generated by horizontal flows:
may be embedded in waters at any depth.
What accurately describes convergence and divergence?
Surface convergence occurs when wind driven water collides with a continent.
Along the west coast of North America:
-upwelling and downwelling both occur seasonally.
-north winds lead to summer upwelling.
-south winds lead to winter downwelling.
Global ocean circulation is described by....
-NADW mixes with and is cooled by Antarctic Bottom Water.
-Deep water from the Atlantic supplies upwellings in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.
-Surface flow from the Pacific and Indian oceans replaces deep water formed in the North Atlantic.
Pacific Decadal Oscillations have been tied to which of the following climate patterns?
prolonged warm, dry conditions in the Pacific Northwest
Which of the following currents is affected by western intensification?
Kurishio Current
As a result of Ekman transport, upwelling occurs when:
wind blows from the north along the west coast of a continent in the northern hemisphere.
Current meter
instrument for measuring the speed and direction of a current
coriolis effect
force acting on a body in motion, due to rotation of earth.causes deflection
water converges and produces sinking or downwelling of surface water
mixing of 2 water types w/ identical densities but diff. temps and salinities; results in denser mix.
Coriolis deflection in NH
to the right
Coriolis deflection in SH
to the left
variable winds near the equator
horizontal flow of water away from a common center.
leads to upwelling in water
downwelling zones
sinking of water.
result of water convergence or an increase in density of water at sea surface
El Nino
wind-driven reversal of Pacific equatorial currents, resulting in movmnt of warm water toward the coasts of Americas.
circular movement of water. (Cold or warm body of water)
Ekman Spiral
surface water moves 45 degress to right of wind in NH. at greater depths, the water moves farther to right with decreased speed until at around 100m, the water moves opposite to wind direction.
greenhouse effect
gradual increase in average global temp caused by absorption of infared radiation from earth's surface by "gases" in the atmosphere.
geostophic flow
horizontal flow of water occurring when there is a balance between gravitational forces and the Coriolis effect
heat budget
accounting for total amt of sun's heat received on earth during 1 yr as being exactly equal to total amt lost b/c of radiation and reflection
line of constant pressure
severe, cyclonic, tropical storm at sea with winds of 120 km/h or more. mostly applied to Atlantic Ocean storms
circular movement of water; large than an eddy
abrupt change in salinity with depth
having a uniform density
having a uniform temperature
having a uniform salt content
jet stream
stream of air, btwn 30 and 50 degress N and S and abt 12 km above earth. moving from west to east at an average speed of 100 km/h
La Nina
condition of colder than normal surface water in the eastern tropical pacific
Langmuir Cell
shallow wind-driven circulation; paired helixes of moving water form windrows of debris along convergence lines
layer of atmosphere above stratosphere extending from about 50-90 km
form of oxygen that absorbs ultraviolet radiation from the sun; 03
orographic effect
precipitation patterns caused by flow of air over mtns.
sinking of denser water and its replacement by less-dense water from below
polar easterlies
winds blowing from the poles twrds approx. 60 N and 60 S; winds are NE in NH and SE in SH
abrupt chance in density with depth
layer of atmosphere above troposphere where temp is constant or increases with altitude
southern Oscillation
periodic reversal of low and high-pressure areas the typically dominate the eastern and western equatorial pacific.
storm surge (storm tide)
high water rise after a storm, owing to high winds and low pressure. Made even worse when it is high tide and shallow depths.
lowest layer of atmosphere, where temp decreases with altitude
layer of atmosphere above mesosphere; extends from 90 km to outer space
trade winds
wind system that occupy most of the tropics and blow from abt 30 N to 30 S twrd equator, winds are NE in NH and SE and SH
thermohaline circulation
vertical circulation caused by changes in density; driven by changes in temp and salinity.

important cuz it brings down oxygen
abrupt change in temperature with depth
upwelling zones
rising of water rich in nutrients twrd the surface, usually result of diverging surface currents
wind systems blowing from west btwn latitudes 30 N and 60 N and 30 S and 60 S. SW in NH and NW in SH
severe, cyclonic tropical storm originating in western pacific ocean
How does earth keep its constant temperature?
Winds and ocean currents remove excess heat accumalted in the tropics and release it at high latitudes to maintain constant temperature.
What controls the annual temperature range in southern middle latitude?
The lack of land in the southern hemisphere and the high heat capacity of the oceans.
The absorption, reflection, and transmission of solar energy in the atmosphere depend on the....
gaseous composition of the atmosphere, suspended particles, and the abundance and types of clouds
How is the troposphere heated?
from below by heat energy reradiated and conducted from Earth's surface and by condensation of water vapor in the upper troposphere.
What is found in the troposphere?
Precipitation, evaporation, convective circulation, wind systems, and clouds
Since ozone absorbs ultraviolet radiation from sunlight, what happens to the stratosphere?
The temperature raises in the stratosphere.
Density is controlled by 3 different variables, which are....
Amount of Water Vapor in the Air
The density of air decreases and increases when temperature...
Increases and density increases with decreasing temperature

warm air is lighter than cold air
Air density decreases if humidity...
increases or the concentration of water vapor increases, and density increases if humidity decreases.

moist air is lighter than dry air
Cold, dry air is....
more dense than warm, moist air
the density of air decreases with what kind of altitude?
increasing altitude.

The greater the compression the greater the density
high-pressure zones
regions of air with a density greater than normal
low-pressure zones
density of air is less than average
what are the 3 reservoirs of Carbon dioxide?
the oceans
terrestrial system
(also can be the geologic reservoir of earth's crust)
What stores the largest and smallest amount of CO2?
The oceans store the largest
the atmosphere stores the least
What links all CO2 reservoirs?
The atmosphere?
Less-dense warmer air _______?
Cooler-denser air______?
Intertropical Convergence Zone
zone of low pressure and rising air near the equator. where wind systems of NH and SH converge to make rising air, low pressure, and high precipitation
How does wind circulation move about in a high pressure cell in the NH?
How does wind circulation move in low-pressure cells in the NH?
How does wind circulation move in the SH? And why?
High-Pressure: counter-clockwise
Low-Pressure: Clockwise
Because of the Coriolis effect
What controls the density of ocean surface water?
Changes in temperature and salinity and pressure
When Salinity increases, density ___?
When temp. increases, density ____?
When pressure increases, density__?
The ocean is sorted by what?
Density levels
What kind of current can affect density?
wind-driven surface currents
The surface zone
extends about 200 m
intermediate zone
300 and 2000 m
Deep water zone
2000-4000 m
Bottom water
below 4000 m
North Atlantic Deep Water
has a salinity of about 34.9 ppt and temp. of 2-4 C.
*it sinks and moves southward
Antarctic Intermediate Water
*near equator
*the upper boundary of North Atlantic deep water is formed by water produced at the convergence centered about 40 S.
*about 5 C and 34.4 ppt
Antarctic Bottom Water
*temp -.5 C and 34.8 ppt
cold and dense water is produced at surface by sea ice formation during SH winter.
*densest water in the oceans
What controls the density of the Arctic Ocean?
Mediterranean Intermediate Waters
since in the North Atlantic to about 1000 m
temp of abt 13 C and abt 37.3 ppt
when talking about the Ekman transport and spiral system, which way does water move in the Southern Hemisphere?
On the eastern side in the SH it moves North
On western side ocean moves south
Ekman transport causes water circulation to move how in the NH and SH?
clockwise in NH and counter-clockwise in SH
North Equatorial Current
when the northeast trade winds push the water toward the west and northwest on the North Pacific ocean.
North Pacific Current
Created by the westerlies. Moves from west to east.
California Current
moves from north to south along the western coast of North America
Kuroshio Current
moves south to north along the east coast of Japan.
The cali current and kuroshio current provide...
continuity of flow and complete a circular motion centered around 30 N latitude.
what currents make up the North Pacific Gyre?
Cali Current
Kuroshio Current
North Equatorial Current
North Pacific Current
flows clockwise
Oyashio Current and Alaska Current are....
wind driven currents
South Equatorial Current
the southeast trade winds move water to left of wind and westward in the South Pacific Ocean
West Wind Drift
westerly winds push water to east and can almost move continuously around earth
What makes up the South Pacific Gyre?
West Wind Drift
Peru Current
South Equatorial Current
East Australian Current

moves counterclockwise
Equatorial Countercurrent
continuity current
helps to return accumulated surface water eastward across the pacific
Canary Current and the Gulf stream are...
the north-south continuity currents
What makes up the North Atlantic Gyre
rotates clockwise

Gulf Stream
Canary Current
North Atlantic Current
North Equatorial Current
What makes up the South Atlantic Gyre?
South Equatorial Current
Brazil Current
West wind Drift
Benguela Current

rotates counterclockwise
Five major zones of convergence
Tropical convergence at equator
2 subtropical convergences at abt 30-40 N and S
Arctic and Antarctic Convergences
three major divergence zones
2 tropical divergences
antarctic divergence