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41 Cards in this Set

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crepuscular

coming out at dusk

osteoderm

jointed armor (found in armadillos); bony deposits forming scales, plates or other structures in the dermal layers of the skin

vermiform

shaped like a worm, usually in reference to a tongue

protrusible

a body part (generally a tongue) capable of being protruded or extended

axial skeleton

the part of the skeleton that includes the skull, vertebral column, ribs, and sternum

neopallium

part of the brain responsible for learned behavior and communicating between more primitive parts of the brain and the motor skills within the brain

phylogeny

creating a tree to explain evolutionary relatedness between taxa based on characters

taxonomy

the branch of science concerned with classification, especially of organisms; systematics; ordering species into groups and naming these groups; grouping and identifying animals with similar characteristics

cladistics

a method of classification of animals and plants according to the proportion of measurable characteristics that two organisms share, the more recently they diverged from a common ancestor

monophyletic

descended from a common evolutionary ancestor or ancestral group, especially one not shared with any other group

suspensorial (locomotion)

movement that involves hanging or suspension of the body below or among branches, as opposed to sitting in the branches

tapetum lucidum

layer of tissue in eye of many vertebrates that forces it to reflect green; Latin meaning "bright tapestry"

type genus

usually the first genus in the family to the named, or the genus that is considered most important; families are name after type genera, e.g. Tyrannosaurus is type genus for family Tyrannosauridae

columnar

axis of weight-bearing is completely vertical, so limbs are directly underneath weight load, as opposed to mammals with a knee at an angle to limbs; disadvantage is that three legs must be down at any one time

graviportal

having the body supports adapted to the bearing of great weights; slow gait as a result of large size/heaviness

torpor

state of decreased physiological activity in an animal, usually by a reduced body temperature and metabolic rate, enabling animals to survive periods of reduced food availability; less of a reduction in metabolic rate compared to hibernation

heterodontic

describing an animal which possesses more than a single tooth morphology

derived character

aka synapomorphy, a trait shared by everyone in a clade, therefore distinguishing that clade from other clades; trait assumed to be present in their most recent common ancestor

auditory bullae

a hollow, bony structure on the ventral, posterior portion of the skull that encloses parts of the middle and inner ear; in most species, formed by the tympanic part of the temporal bone

bunodont

describing molars with low, rounded, hill-like cusps rather than sharp peaks which are generally quadrate and effective crushing devices; most common in omnivores such as pigs, bears, and humans

hypsodont

describing teeth which are characterized by high crowns and enamel extending far past the gum line, providing extra material for wear and tear and molars of this type grow throughout life; examples are horses and other animals feeding on gritty, fibrous material

lophodont

describing teeth identified by patterns of ridges or lophs of enamel interconnecting the cusps on the crowns, which can be a simple ring-like edge; present in most herbivores

syndactyly

condition of having some or all of the fingers or toes wholly or party united (think Pilosa, Brachypodidae)

marsupium

a pouch that protects eggs, offspring, or reproductive structures, especially the pouch of a female marsupial mammal

mesaxonic

having the axis of the foot formed by the middle digit

choriovitelline placenta

a type of placenta with less prominent villi than the chorioallantoic placenta, resulting in comparatively less efficient nutrient transfer; a placentation in which the yolk sac becomes involved in the fetal-maternal union

fossorial

specialized for digging

saltatorial

specialized for leaping

cursorial

specialized for speed

zygomatic arch

the arched bony structure connecting the area below the orbit to the temporalis; the masseter, temporalis, and pterygoidal muscles all attach to this arch to aid in mastication; colloquially, "cheekbones"

diastema

the space separating teeth of different functions, especially that between the biting teeth (incisors and canines) and grinding or "cheek" teeth (premolars and molars) in rodents and ungulates

xenarthrous articulation

deriving from "Xenarthra" meaning "strange joints", describes a skeletal arrangement typical of Cingulata in which the vertebral joints have additional articulations lacking in other mammals; trait is referred to as xenarthy (note that Cingulata also has a fused ischium and sacrum)

diphyodont dentition

the condition of having two successive sets of teeth - the initial deciduous set and then the "permanent set"; most mammals are diphyodonts

countershading

protective coloration of some animal sin which parts normally in shadow are light and those exposed to the sky are dark

pinnae

the external part of the ear in humans and other mammals; the auricle

caecum

pouch connected to junction of small and large intestine; hind-gut fermenters use this is a site for microbial fermentation of cellulose, but this process is far slower than ruminant foregut fermentation

sagittal crest

the bony ridge on top of the skull to which the jaw muscles are attached in metatherians

oviparous

producing young by means of eggs hatched after they were laid by the parent

plantigrade

the condition of walking on the full soles of the feet, e.g. humans and bears

digitigrade

the condition of walking on the toes, e.g. cats and dogs; somewhat adapted for cursorial locomotion

unguligrade

the condition of walking on the nails, e.g. horses and deer; excellently adapted for cursorial locomotion