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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the organization of the testis? (5)
1) produce sperm
2) produce male sex hormones
3) produce seminal fluid
4) propel sperm and seminal fluid (semen) to exterior
5) copulation
What is the 2 functions of the testis?
1) produce sperm
2) secrete tesosterone
What is in the CT stroma of the testes? (3)
1) tunica albuginea
2) septa
3) mediastinum testes
What is the purpose of the tunica albuginea?
cover the testis
What is the purpose of the mediastinum testes?
contain rete testes that connect seminiferous tubules to the efferent ducts of the testes
What is in the parenchyma of the testes?
1) seminifeous tubules
2) interstitial cells of leydig
What are the two main components of the testes?
1) CT stroma
2) parenchyma
What is the purpose of the seminiferous tubules?
produce sperm
What are the two parts of the seminiferous tubules?
1) convoluted portion
2) straight portion
What occurs in the convulted portion?
contains seminiferous epithelium where sperm production occurs
What occurs in the straight portion? (tubuli recti)
1) connect the convuluted portion with the rete testis in mediastinum
2) lined by non sperm forming cuboidal epithelium
What occurs in the interstitial cells of Leydig?
produce testosterone
What are the interstitial cells of Leydig?
clusters of CT between the seminiferous tubules
What is prominent in the interstitial cells of Leydig?
-mitochondria with tubular cristae
-lipid droplets
What two types of cells are in the seminiferous tubules?
1) sertoli cells
2)spermatogenic cells
What kind of cells are the sertoli cells?
1) tall
2) columnar
3) go from basement membrane to lumen of seminferous tubule
What is the product of the sertoli cells?
androgen binding protein to concentrate testosterone made by interstitial cells
What do the adjacent sertoli cells form?
blood-testis barrier which divides the seminiferous epithelium into basal and luminal compartments
What is in the basal vs luminal compartment of the sertoli cells?
1) cells in early stages of spermatogenesis- similar to tissue fluid
2) cells in later stages of spermatogenesis - unique microenvironment antigenic isolation and high testosterone
What is important about the luminal compartment of the sertoli cells?
protect cells against tissue fluid such as antibodies
What are the steps of spermatogenesis?
1) diploid spermatogonia
2) mitosis
3) primary spermatocytes + more spermatogonia
4) meosis I
5) haploid
6) secondary spermatocytes
7) meoisis II
8) spermatids
9) cytodifferentiation
10) spermatozoa
Where does reductional division occur in spermatgoensis?
from primary spermatocyte to secondary spermatocyte via meiosis I
When does equational division occur?
from secondary spermatocytes to spermatids via meosis II
What is the largest germ cell?
primary spermatocytes
Which is the shortest lasting cell cycle stage?
secondary spermatocyte
What are the cytodifferentiation steps you go to to get to spermiogenesis?
1) intracellular bridges break down
2) nucleus condenses and elongates
3) acrosome forms
4) acrosome is large vesicle that contains hydrolytic enzymes
5) flagellum form
What is spermiation?
release of spermatzoa from sertoli cell into lumen of seminiferous tubule
What is the course of the sperm within the testis?
1) seminiferous tubules convuluted produce sperm
2) seminiferous tubule straight portion connects convoluted portion to rete testis
3) rete testis connects to efferent ducts
4) efferent ducts leads to duct of epidydymis
How does the efferent duct change from the rete testis to the epidydimis?
1) alternating simple epithelium with scalloped border - tall ciliated and shorter cuboidal
2) ducts become highly coiled forming coni vasculosi
3) conus vasculosi form head of epidiydymus
What is the function of the efferent duct?
propel spermatozoa and resorb testicular fluid
Once you are in the epididymus what structure have you left?
What are the three components of the epididymis?
What two structures does the head of the epididymus contain?
1) efferent ducts (coni vasculosi)
2) duct of epididymis
What is the histology of the duct of the epididymis?
1) highly coiled tube
2) tall psuedostratified columnar epithelium with stereocilia
What are the three functions of the epidiymis?
1) store sperm
2) absorb excess testicular fluid
3) move sperm toward ductus deferns
What is the function of the ductus deferens?
convey and propel sperm from duct of epididymis to ejaculatory duct of prostate
What is the histology of the ductus deferens?
1)mucosa - psuedostratified columnar epithelium with stereocilia
2)thick muscularis externa with 3 layers
What is in the spermatic cord?
1) spermatic artery
2) pampinerform plexus
3) nerve plexus
What does the ductus deferns lead to?
ejaculatory duct --> urethra
What are the three genital glands?
seminal vesicles
prostate gland
bulbourethral glands
What is the function of the seminal vesicle?
provides bulk of seminal fluid including fructose, citrate, proteins, prostaglandins, sperm coagulating factors
What is the histology of the seminal vesicle? (2)
1)paired glands lying posterior to urinary bladder
each gland composed of single highly tortuous tube lined with psuedostratified columnar epithelium
2)luminal surface has complex folds
Where is the prostate located?
around the prostatic urethra
What is the prostate composed of?
psuedostratified columnar epithelium that make up tons of glands
What is the function of the prostate?
secrete thin milky fluid containing citric acid and acid phosphatase as well as hydrolytic enzymes like PSA
What is PSA?
serine protease and fibinolysin
What are the four components of the penis?
1)-2) paired corpus cavernosa
2) corpus spongiosum
3) tunica albuginea
4) thin skin covering
What artery is involved in the erection process? where is it located?
deep artery and helicine arteries in corpus cavernosa?
What nervous activity causes an erection?
parasympathetics cause dilation of deep and helicine artery
Where is the penile urethra located?
corpus spongiosum
What is the two components of the penile urethra? (2)
1) peudostratified columnar epithelium --> moist stratified sqaumous epithelum near opening
2) glands of Littre
What is located in the glands of littre?
mucous secreting glands that provide lubrication for ejaculate
What regulates spermatogensis?
follicle stimulating hormone
What regulates the secretion of testosterone from interstitial cells of leydig?
leutinizing hormone/interstitial cell stimulating hormone