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37 Cards in this Set

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data dictionary

a list of every variable name used in a program, along with its type, size, and description

data hierarchy

represents the relationship of databases, files, records, fields, and characters

data intergrity

describes a database that followes a set of rules to make its data accurate and consistent

data redundancy

the unnecessary repetition of data

data type

the characteristic of a variable that describes the kind of values the variables can hold and the types of operations that can be performed with it.

database

a logical container that holds a group of files often called tables, that together serve the information needs of an organization

database management software

a set of programs that allows users to create and manage data

dead path

a logical path that can never be traveled

deadlock

a flaw in multithreaded programs in which two or more threads wait for each other to execute.

debugging

the process of finding and correcting program errors.

decimal numbering system

the numbering system based on 10 digits, column values are multiples of ten

decision structure

a program structure in which a question is asked, and, depending on the answer, one of two courses of action is taken. then, no matter which path is followed, the paths join and the next task executes.

decision symbol

a symbol that represents a decision in a flowchart; it is shaped like a diamond

declaration

a statement that names a variable and its data type

declaring variables

the process of naming program variables and assigning a type to them.

decrement

to change a variable by decreasing it by a constant value, frequently 1.

default constructor

a constructor that requires no arguments

default input and output devices

hardware devices that do not require opening; usually they are the keyboard and monitor, respectively.

defensive programming

a technique in which programmers try to prepare for all possible errors before they occur

definite loop

a loop for which the number of repetitions is a predetermined value

delete anomaly

a problem that occurs when a row is deleted from a database table; the result is loss of related data.

denormalize

to place a database table in a lower normal form by repeating information.

deployment diagram

a UML diagram that focuses on a system's hardware

derived class

an extended class

descending order

describes the arrangement of data items from highest to lowest

desk checking

the process of walking through a program solution on paper

destructor

an automatically called method that contains the actions required when an instance of a class is destroyed

detail loop tasks

the steps that are repeated for each set of input data

direct access files

random access files

directories

organization units on storage devices; each can contain multiple files as well as additional directories. in a graphical interface system, directories are often called folders.

documentation

all of the supporting material that goes with a program

DOS prompt

the command line in the DOS operating system

do-until loop

a posttest loop that iterates unilt its controlling condition is false

do-while loop

a posttest loop in which the body executes before the loop control variable is tested

dual-alteranite if

a selection structure that defines one action to be take nwhe nthe tested condition is true, and another action to be taken when it is false.

dual-alternative selection

a selection structure that defines one action to be take nwhe nthe tested condition is true, and another action to be taken when it is false.

dummy value

a preselected value that stops the execution of a program