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93 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
What is an argument? 
Set of statements where one is inferred from the others 

What is an inferred statement? 
A statement that is true because the others are 

What is an inferring statement? 
Premise 

What is an unsupported assertion?

Statements that is not a clear argument 

What are Illustrations? 
Statements that describe 

What is an explanation? 
Statement that appears to be an argument, but actually is not arguing for a claim Reasons for acknowledged facts 

What is an explananda? 
Explananda = fact to be explained 

What is an explanan?

Statement that explains the fact 

What are inference indicators? 
Expression that indicate that an inference is being drawn 

What is a valid deductive argument? 
If the premises are true, the conclusion cannot be false (follows necessarily). 

When is an argument form deductively valid? 
Iff no substitution instance where premises true, conclusion false 

When is an argument deductively valid? 
Iff it is a substitution instance of a deductively valid argument form 

What is an Atype argument? 
All S are P 

What is an Itype argument?

Some S are P 

What is an Etype argument? 
No S are P 

What is an Otype argument? 
Some S are not P 

What is logical quantity? 
Applications to all or some Universal vs particular 

What is logical quality? 
Affirmative and negative 

What are the contradiction argument pairs? 
AO
EI 

What are the contrariety argument pairs? 
AE 

What are contrariety arguments? 
A pair of statements that is impossible for both to be true Possible for both to be false 

What are the subcontrariety argument pairs? 
IO 

What is a subcontrariety argument? 
Pair of statements that is impossible for both to be false Possible for both to be true 

What is a subalternation? 
If one is true, then the other must be true, but not viceversa 

What are the subaltern pairs? 
AI (I is the subaltern of the A) EO (O is the subaltern of the E) 

What are the superaltern pairs? 
IA OE 

What is logical equivalence? 
Equal truth values 

What are complementary pairs? 
S and nonS 

What is the converse of an A argument? 
All P are S 

Is the converse of an A argument valid? 
No 

What is the converse of an E argument? 
No P are S 

Is the converse of an E argument valid? 
Yes 

What is the converse of an I argument? 
Some P are S 

Is the converse of an I argument valid? 
Yes 

What is the converse of an O argument? 
Some P are not S 

Is the converse of an O argument valid? 
No 

Which argument(s) can be converted by limitation? 
An A argument 

How do you convert an A argument by limitation?

Subaltern (All > some), then convert 

What is the obverse of an A statement? 
No S are nonP 

Is the obverse of an A statement valid?

Yes 

What is the obverse of an E argument? 
All S are nonP 

Is the obverse of an E argument valid? 
Yes 

What is the obverse of an O argument? 
Some S are nonP 

Is the obverse of an O argument valid? 
Yes


What is the obverse of an I argument? 
Some S are not nonP 

Is the obverse of an I argument valid? 
Yes 

What is the contrapositive of an A argument? 
All nonP are nonS 

Is the contrapositive of an A argument valid? 
Yes 

What is the contrapositive of an E argument? 
No nonP are nonS 

Is the contrapositive of an E argument valid? 
No 

What is the contrapositive of an I argument? 
Some nonP are nonS 

is the contrapositive of an I argument valid? 
No 

What is the contrapositive of an O argument? 
Some nonP are not nonS 

Is the contrapositive of an O argument valid? 
Yes 

Which statement can be contraposed by limitations? 
E statements 

How do you contrapose an E statement? 
Convert, contrapose 

What is the minor term? 
Subject term of the conclusion 

What is the major term? 
Predicate term of the conclusion 

Which term is distributed in an A statement? 
Subject 

Which term is distributed in an E statement? 
Subject and Predicate 

Which term is distributed in an I statement? 
None 

Which term is distributed in an O statement? 
Predicate 

What are the five fallacies in categorial logic? 
Undistributed middle Illicit process Exclusive premises Affirmative conclusion from negative premises Negative conclusion from affirmative premises 

Illicit Major/Minor fallacy 
Term distributed in conclusion must be distributed in premises 

Exclusive premise fallacy 
Cannot have two negative presmises 

Affirmative conclusion/negative premise fallacy 
If you have a negative premise, you must have a negative conclusion 

Negative conclusion/affirmative premise fallacy 
A negative conclusion must have a negative premise 

MP 
Modus ponens p => q p / q 

MT 
Modus tollens p => q ~p / ~q 

HS 
Hypothetical syllogism p => q q => r / p => r 

DS

Disjunctive syllogism
p v q ~p / q 

Logically Necessary or Tautology

Everything is true


Logically impossible or selfcontradiction

Everything is false


Logically noncontingent 
Must be either necessary or impossible 

Logically contingent 
Neither necessary nor impossible 

Logically equivalent 
Two WFFs with same truth values 

Logically consistent 
Two WFFs that are both true at some point 

Logically inconsistent 
Two WFFs with no truths matching 

Logically contradictory 
Two WFFs with opposite truth values 

Logically invalid 
Premises all true, conclusion false 

CD 
Constructive Dilemma (p => q) . (r => s) p v r / q v s 

DM 
De Morgan ~ (p . q) :: (~p v ~q) ~ (p v q) :: (~p . ~q) 

Com

Commutation (p v q) :: (q v p) (p . q) :: (q . p) 

Assoc 
Association [ p v (q v r) ] :: [ (p v q) v r] [ p . (q . r) ] :: [ (p . q) . r] 

Dist 
Distribution [ p . (q v r) ] :: [ (p . q) v (p . r) ] [ p v (q . r) ] :: [ (p v q) . (p v r) ] 

DN 
Double Negative p :: ~~p 

Trans 
Transposition ( p => q ) :: (~q => ~ p) 

Impl 
Material implication ( p => q) :: (~p v q) 

Equiv 
Material Equivalence (p <=> q) :: (p => q) . (q => p) (p <=> q) :: (p . q) v (~p . ~q) 

Exp 
Exportation ( p . q) => r :: p => (q => r) 

Taut 
Tautology p :: (p v p) p :: (p . p) 

CQ 
Change of Quantifier (x)Sx :: ~(Ex) ~Sx ~(x)Sx :: (Ex) ~Sx (Ex) Sx :: ~(x) ~Sx ~(Ex) Sx:: (x) ~Sx 

Id 
Identity relation a = a a = b :: b = a Sa a = b / Sb 