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### 93 Cards in this Set

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 What is an argument? Set of statements where one is inferred from the others What is an inferred statement? A statement that is true because the others are What is an inferring statement? Premise What is an unsupported assertion? Statements that is not a clear argument What are Illustrations? Statements that describe What is an explanation? Statement that appears to be an argument, but actually is not arguing for a claimReasons for acknowledged facts What is an explananda? Explananda = fact to be explained What is an explanan? Statement that explains the fact What are inference indicators? Expression that indicate that an inference is being drawn What is a valid deductive argument? If the premises are true, the conclusion cannot be false (follows necessarily). When is an argument form deductively valid? Iff no substitution instance where premises true, conclusion false When is an argument deductively valid? Iff it is a substitution instance of a deductively valid argument form What is an A-type argument? All S are P What is an I-type argument? Some S are P What is an E-type argument? No S are P What is an O-type argument? Some S are not P What is logical quantity? Applications to all or someUniversal vs particular What is logical quality? Affirmative and negative What are the contradiction argument pairs? A-OE-I What are the contrariety argument pairs? A-E What are contrariety arguments? A pair of statements that is impossible for both to be truePossible for both to be false What are the subcontrariety argument pairs? I-O What is a subcontrariety argument? Pair of statements that is impossible for both to be falsePossible for both to be true What is a subalternation? If one is true, then the other must be true, but not vice-versa What are the subaltern pairs? A-I (I is the subaltern of the A)E-O (O is the subaltern of the E) What are the superaltern pairs? I-AO-E What is logical equivalence? Equal truth values What are complementary pairs? S and non-S What is the converse of an A argument? All P are S Is the converse of an A argument valid? No What is the converse of an E argument? No P are S Is the converse of an E argument valid? Yes What is the converse of an I argument? Some P are S Is the converse of an I argument valid? Yes What is the converse of an O argument? Some P are not S Is the converse of an O argument valid? No Which argument(s) can be converted by limitation? An A argument How do you convert an A argument by limitation? Subaltern (All -> some), then convert What is the obverse of an A statement? No S are non-P Is the obverse of an A statement valid? Yes What is the obverse of an E argument? All S are non-P Is the obverse of an E argument valid? Yes What is the obverse of an O argument? Some S are non-P Is the obverse of an O argument valid? Yes What is the obverse of an I argument? Some S are not non-P Is the obverse of an I argument valid? Yes What is the contrapositive of an A argument? All non-P are non-S Is the contrapositive of an A argument valid? Yes What is the contrapositive of an E argument? No non-P are non-S Is the contrapositive of an E argument valid? No What is the contrapositive of an I argument? Some non-P are non-S is the contrapositive of an I argument valid? No What is the contrapositive of an O argument? Some non-P are not non-S Is the contrapositive of an O argument valid? Yes Which statement can be contraposed by limitations? E statements How do you contrapose an E statement? Convert, contrapose What is the minor term? Subject term of the conclusion What is the major term? Predicate term of the conclusion Which term is distributed in an A statement? Subject Which term is distributed in an E statement? Subject and Predicate Which term is distributed in an I statement? None Which term is distributed in an O statement? Predicate What are the five fallacies in categorial logic? Undistributed middleIllicit processExclusive premisesAffirmative conclusion from negative premisesNegative conclusion from affirmative premises Illicit Major/Minor fallacy Term distributed in conclusion must be distributed in premises Exclusive premise fallacy Cannot have two negative presmises Affirmative conclusion/negative premise fallacy If you have a negative premise, you must have a negative conclusion Negative conclusion/affirmative premise fallacy A negative conclusion must have a negative premise MP Modus ponensp => qp/ q MT Modus tollensp => q~p/ ~q HS Hypothetical syllogismp => qq => r/ p => r DS Disjunctive syllogismp v q~p/ q Logically Necessary or Tautology Everything is true Logically impossible or self-contradiction Everything is false Logically noncontingent Must be either necessary or impossible Logically contingent Neither necessary nor impossible Logically equivalent Two WFFs with same truth values Logically consistent Two WFFs that are both true at some point Logically inconsistent Two WFFs with no truths matching Logically contradictory Two WFFs with opposite truth values Logically invalid Premises all true, conclusion false CD Constructive Dilemma(p => q) . (r => s)p v r/ q v s DM De Morgan~ (p . q) :: (~p v ~q)~ (p v q) :: (~p . ~q) Com Commutation(p v q) :: (q v p)(p . q) :: (q . p) Assoc Association[ p v (q v r) ] :: [ (p v q) v r][ p . (q . r) ] :: [ (p . q) . r] Dist Distribution[ p . (q v r) ] :: [ (p . q) v (p . r) ][ p v (q . r) ] :: [ (p v q) . (p v r) ] DN Double Negativep :: ~~p Trans Transposition( p => q ) :: (~q => ~ p) Impl Material implication( p => q) :: (~p v q) Equiv Material Equivalence(p <=> q) :: (p => q) . (q => p)(p <=> q) :: (p . q) v (~p . ~q) Exp Exportation( p . q) => r :: p => (q => r) Taut Tautologyp :: (p v p)p :: (p . p) CQ Change of Quantifier(x)Sx :: ~(Ex) ~Sx~(x)Sx :: (Ex) ~Sx(Ex) Sx :: ~(x) ~Sx~(Ex) Sx:: (x) ~Sx Id Identity relationa = aa = b :: b = aSaa = b/ Sb