Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/93

Click to flip

93 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What is an argument?

Set of statements where one is inferred from the others

What is an inferred statement?

A statement that is true because the others are

What is an inferring statement?

Premise

What is an unsupported assertion?

Statements that is not a clear argument

What are Illustrations?

Statements that describe

What is an explanation?

Statement that appears to be an argument, but actually is not arguing for a claim




Reasons for acknowledged facts

What is an explananda?

Explananda = fact to be explained





What is an explanan?


Statement that explains the fact

What are inference indicators?

Expression that indicate that an inference is being drawn

What is a valid deductive argument?

If the premises are true, the conclusion cannot be false (follows necessarily).

When is an argument form deductively valid?

Iff no substitution instance where premises true, conclusion false

When is an argument deductively valid?

Iff it is a substitution instance of a deductively valid argument form

What is an A-type argument?

All S are P

What is an I-type argument?

Some S are P

What is an E-type argument?

No S are P

What is an O-type argument?

Some S are not P

What is logical quantity?

Applications to all or some




Universal vs particular

What is logical quality?

Affirmative and negative

What are the contradiction argument pairs?

A-O



E-I


What are the contrariety argument pairs?

A-E

What are contrariety arguments?

A pair of statements that is impossible for both to be true




Possible for both to be false

What are the subcontrariety argument pairs?

I-O

What is a subcontrariety argument?

Pair of statements that is impossible for both to be false




Possible for both to be true

What is a subalternation?

If one is true, then the other must be true, but not vice-versa

What are the subaltern pairs?

A-I (I is the subaltern of the A)




E-O (O is the subaltern of the E)

What are the superaltern pairs?

I-A




O-E

What is logical equivalence?

Equal truth values

What are complementary pairs?

S and non-S

What is the converse of an A argument?

All P are S

Is the converse of an A argument valid?

No

What is the converse of an E argument?

No P are S

Is the converse of an E argument valid?

Yes

What is the converse of an I argument?

Some P are S

Is the converse of an I argument valid?

Yes

What is the converse of an O argument?

Some P are not S

Is the converse of an O argument valid?

No

Which argument(s) can be converted by limitation?

An A argument

How do you convert an A argument by limitation?

Subaltern (All -> some), then convert

What is the obverse of an A statement?

No S are non-P

Is the obverse of an A statement valid?

Yes

What is the obverse of an E argument?

All S are non-P

Is the obverse of an E argument valid?

Yes

What is the obverse of an O argument?

Some S are non-P

Is the obverse of an O argument valid?

Yes

What is the obverse of an I argument?

Some S are not non-P

Is the obverse of an I argument valid?

Yes

What is the contrapositive of an A argument?

All non-P are non-S

Is the contrapositive of an A argument valid?

Yes

What is the contrapositive of an E argument?

No non-P are non-S

Is the contrapositive of an E argument valid?

No

What is the contrapositive of an I argument?

Some non-P are non-S

is the contrapositive of an I argument valid?

No

What is the contrapositive of an O argument?

Some non-P are not non-S

Is the contrapositive of an O argument valid?

Yes

Which statement can be contraposed by limitations?

E statements

How do you contrapose an E statement?

Convert, contrapose

What is the minor term?

Subject term of the conclusion

What is the major term?

Predicate term of the conclusion

Which term is distributed in an A statement?

Subject

Which term is distributed in an E statement?

Subject and Predicate

Which term is distributed in an I statement?

None

Which term is distributed in an O statement?

Predicate

What are the five fallacies in categorial logic?

Undistributed middle




Illicit process




Exclusive premises




Affirmative conclusion from negative premises




Negative conclusion from affirmative premises





Illicit Major/Minor fallacy

Term distributed in conclusion must be distributed in premises

Exclusive premise fallacy

Cannot have two negative presmises

Affirmative conclusion/negative premise fallacy

If you have a negative premise, you must have a negative conclusion

Negative conclusion/affirmative premise fallacy

A negative conclusion must have a negative premise

MP

Modus ponens




p => q


p


/ q

MT

Modus tollens




p => q


~p


/ ~q

HS

Hypothetical syllogism




p => q


q => r


/ p => r

DS

Disjunctive syllogism



p v q


~p


/ q


Logically Necessary or Tautology
Everything is true


Logically impossible or self-contradiction


Everything is false

Logically noncontingent

Must be either necessary or impossible

Logically contingent

Neither necessary nor impossible

Logically equivalent

Two WFFs with same truth values

Logically consistent

Two WFFs that are both true at some point

Logically inconsistent

Two WFFs with no truths matching

Logically contradictory

Two WFFs with opposite truth values

Logically invalid

Premises all true, conclusion false

CD

Constructive Dilemma




(p => q) . (r => s)


p v r


/ q v s

DM

De Morgan




~ (p . q) :: (~p v ~q)


~ (p v q) :: (~p . ~q)

Com

Commutation




(p v q) :: (q v p)


(p . q) :: (q . p)

Assoc

Association




[ p v (q v r) ] :: [ (p v q) v r]


[ p . (q . r) ] :: [ (p . q) . r]

Dist

Distribution




[ p . (q v r) ] :: [ (p . q) v (p . r) ]


[ p v (q . r) ] :: [ (p v q) . (p v r) ]

DN

Double Negative




p :: ~~p

Trans

Transposition




( p => q ) :: (~q => ~ p)

Impl

Material implication




( p => q) :: (~p v q)

Equiv

Material Equivalence




(p <=> q) :: (p => q) . (q => p)


(p <=> q) :: (p . q) v (~p . ~q)

Exp

Exportation




( p . q) => r :: p => (q => r)

Taut

Tautology




p :: (p v p)


p :: (p . p)

CQ

Change of Quantifier




(x)Sx :: ~(Ex) ~Sx


~(x)Sx :: (Ex) ~Sx


(Ex) Sx :: ~(x) ~Sx


~(Ex) Sx:: (x) ~Sx

Id

Identity relation




a = a


a = b :: b = a




Sa


a = b


/ Sb