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42 Cards in this Set

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Robert Boyle

RobertBoyle showed that both animals and flames died in a vacuum indicating that aircontained something (oxygen) that is required both to maintain life and to keepa candle burning

Joseph Priestly

Examined the ability of gases to support life: Most gases cannot support life

Mice survived when placed in gas produced by heating mercuric oxide (oxygen)

Mice lived longer if plant material is present in the container (oxygen)

Antoine Lavoisier

Experimented with Priestly's life-supporting gas: Named the gas "oxygen"

Discovered that animals and burning coal consume O2 and release CO2 and heat.

Demonstrated that the amount of heat produced relative to O2 uptake is about the same for animals and burning coal.

Respiratory Surface

site of oxygen, carbon dioxide exchange.

(must be moist & have a large surface area)

2-step process of a coupled respiratory &

circulatory system

step 1: exchange between respiratory medium (Alveoli) and circulatory system

step 2: exchange between circulatory system and interstitial fluid bathing cells

Advantages (1) & Disadvantages (3) of respiration in aquatic animals


respiratory surfaces always moist


O2 concentration relatively low in ocean

exchange must be extra efficient

needs to expend energy for gas exchange


any method of increasing contact between the respiratory medium and the respiratory surface

(usually requires energy)

counter-current exchange through gills

water flows in through the mouth, out through the gills while blood flow in thin lamella passes water in opposite direction. The water warms the blood which warms the body.

Advantages (3) & Disadvantages (1) of respiration in terrestrial animals


higher concentration of O2

O2 and CO2 diffuse faster in air

air is easier to move & requires less energy


loss of water by evaporation

Human anatomy pathway of respiratory system

mouth --> pharynx --> larynx --> trachea --> bronchi --> bronchioli --> alveoli

pleural sac

thin, fluid-filled sac that separates the lungs and chest wall. always has negative pressure that keeps the lungs bigger and the chest wall


delta pressure =

intrathoracic pressure - air pressure

= (intrapleural + intra-alveolar) - air

Inspiration: process

ACTIVE process.

1. diaphragm contracts, lungs expand

2. intercostal muscles contract, ribs expand

3. lung volume increases

4. air flows in through oral cavity

Inspiration: pressure levels

intra-alveolar pressure = negative

intrapleural pressure = negative

air pressure = positive

delta pressure = negative

Expiration: process

PASSIVE process.

1. diaphragm relaxes, lungs shrink

2. intercostal muscles relax, ribs relax

3. lung volume decreases

4. air flows out of oral cavity

Expiration: pressure levels

intra-alveolar pressure = positive

intrapleural pressure = negative

air pressure = positive

delta pressure = positive

Tidal volume

breathing normally at rest. ~500mL

Expiratory reserve volume

actively exhaling air as much as you can. ~1100mL

Residual volume

volume of air remaining at lungs at the end of a forced exhalation. ~1200mL

Dead space

volume of air remaining in airways at the end of each exhalation. ~150mL

Inspiratory reserve volume

actively inhaling air as much as you can. ~3000mL

Vital capacity

the total volume that is available for the organism to use. (tidal + expiratory reserve +

inspiratory reserve = ~4600mL)

Total pulmonary ventilation rate

Tidal volume * respiratory rate

(500mL/breath * 12 breaths/min = 6000mL)

Alveolar ventilation rate

Tidal volume - dead space * respiratory rate

(500mL - 150mL * 12 breaths/min = 4200mL)

Frick's Law of Diffusion

delta Qs/delta t = Ds * (C2-C1)

Partial pressure of O2 and CO2 in AIR

O2 = 160mmHg

CO2 = 0.25mmHg

Respiratory pigments

carrier proteins that transport oxygen through blood. include hemoglobin (humans) and

hemocyanin (arthropods/mollusks)

Hemoglobin structure

4 protein subunits, each with iron in the center binding oxygen for each subunit.

___% of oxygen is dissolved in blood

___% of oxygen is bound to hemoglobin

2% dissolved

98% hemoglobin

Red blood cells

cells packed with hemoglobin

Oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve

Thehigher the partial pressure of oxygen, the more oxygen saturation (binding) ofhemoglobin

lungs: ppO2 = 100mmHg, 99% saturation

tissues at rest: ppO2 = 40mmHg, 75% saturation

tissues exercise: ppO2 = 10mmHg, 10% saturation

Bohr shift

Decreasedbinding of oxygen to hemoglobin, high ppCO2, low pH

(see picture)


respiratory pigment in muscle that rely on

aerobic metabolism (red muscle/dark meat)

has a single heme group instead of four

much higher affinity for O2 than hemoglobin

O-H dissociation curve shifts to the left

___% of CO2 is dissolved in blood

___% of CO2 is bound to hemoglobin

___% of CO2 contributes to the bicarbonate

buffer system

7% dissolved

23% hemoglobin

70% bicarbonate

Pons respiratory center

modulates medulla respiratory center

Medulla respiratory center

generates the respiratory rhythm by

responding to sensory feedback and interacting with respiratory motoneurons

Hering-Breuer reflex

inspiratory neurons in medulla stimulate respiratory motoneurons which trigger respiratory muscles to expand which activates stretch

receptors in bronchi, sending negative feedback to the respiratory center to end inspiration

Peripheral chemoreceptors

located in carotid bodies, aortic arch, and fish gills.

activated by a decrease in ppO2 and an increase in ppCO2, although it has to be a significant change.

Central chemoreceptors

very sensitive, fast, and crucial for respiratory


located in the medulla oblongata

activated by a decrease in pH (increase in [H+]) of the CSF

CO2 and H+ in CSF bind to central chemoreceptors

response: respiratory control centers increases ventilation to increase ppO2 and decrease pCO2

Shallow-water blackout

sudden loss of consciousness while diving caused by hyperventilation before diving and physical activity while diving, among other things.


increases ppO2 without changing O2 content

decreases ppCO2 and CO2 content

decreases respiratory drive

longer breath-holding time


decreases ppO2 and slightly decreases O2


increases ppCO2 and CO2 content & [H+]csf

increases respiratory drive

shorter breath-holding time