Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A collection of microbes in and on our body
Microbes in and on our body including bacteria, viruses, eukaryotes(fungus or protozoa)

-About 90% of the cells in or on our body

-Our second genome

-All of the microbial genomes in a community of organisms

-About 100 fold more microbial genes than human genes

A part of the digestive system in cattle with a lot of bacteria where cellulase is produced in order to break down cellulose
A microbial fermentation chamber in some herbivores

-Near the large intestine

Microbial antagonism
-Colonization by harmless (benign or beneficial) microbes protect us from invasion by pathogenic microbes

-Occupy adherence site, consume nutrients, produce inhibitory substances, affects pH and oxygen

A polymer of amino sugars that make up bacterial cell walls
-A community of microbes that live together on a surface

-When cells contact a solid surface the excrete a gel-like polysaccharide matrix that traps other cells

-Enhance antimicrobial resistance

Quorum sensing
Bacteria in biofilms communicate using chemical signals

-Attract other species

-Production of matrix polysaccharides

16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
-A gene that encodes small subunit of rRNA that is essential for protein translation

-All bacteria have 165 rRNA

Metagenomic sequencing
Sequence every gene in the microbial community

-Reveals biological functions of an entire community

-Collection of functions microbes provide that's important for health

Human Microbiome Project (HMP)
Generate resources to enable the comprehensive characterization of the human micro biome and analysis of its role in human health
Vertical transmission
Microbiome transmission from mother to child:1) Vaginal passage2) Contact with the skin3) breastfeeding4) Oral pre-matication
Hygiene hypothesis
The theory that we live too cleanly

-Over the past 50 years incidence of infectious disease have steadily decreased

-At the same time incidence of immune diseases have skyrocketed

Imblanace of microbiota due to environmental changes

E.g. Streptococcus mutans overgrowth due to high carbohydrate intake

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT)
Replacing the microbiota of C.Dif patients with that of a healthy donor
Live microorganisms that promote health and growth to the host
A selectively fermented ingredient that results in specific changes, both in composition and activity of the gut microbiota
Combining prebiotic and probiotic approaches to allow for duel benefits

-Enhance probiotic survival with prebiotic

-Microbiologically monitored environment or animal that is germ free


-Environment where or animal in which identities of all microbiota are known

Method in which germ-free animals are inoculated with gut microbiota to populate the GI tract