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21 Cards in this Set

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Microbiome
A collection of microbes in and on our body
Microbiota
Microbes in and on our body including bacteria, viruses, eukaryotes(fungus or protozoa)

-About 90% of the cells in or on our body

Metagenome
-Our second genome

-All of the microbial genomes in a community of organisms


-About 100 fold more microbial genes than human genes

Rumen
A part of the digestive system in cattle with a lot of bacteria where cellulase is produced in order to break down cellulose
Cecum
A microbial fermentation chamber in some herbivores

-Near the large intestine

Microbial antagonism
-Colonization by harmless (benign or beneficial) microbes protect us from invasion by pathogenic microbes

-Occupy adherence site, consume nutrients, produce inhibitory substances, affects pH and oxygen

Peptidoglycan
A polymer of amino sugars that make up bacterial cell walls
Biofilms
-A community of microbes that live together on a surface

-When cells contact a solid surface the excrete a gel-like polysaccharide matrix that traps other cells


-Enhance antimicrobial resistance

Quorum sensing
Bacteria in biofilms communicate using chemical signals

-Attract other species


-Production of matrix polysaccharides

16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
-A gene that encodes small subunit of rRNA that is essential for protein translation

-All bacteria have 165 rRNA

Metagenomic sequencing
Sequence every gene in the microbial community

-Reveals biological functions of an entire community


-Collection of functions microbes provide that's important for health

Human Microbiome Project (HMP)
Generate resources to enable the comprehensive characterization of the human micro biome and analysis of its role in human health
Vertical transmission
Microbiome transmission from mother to child:1) Vaginal passage2) Contact with the skin3) breastfeeding4) Oral pre-matication
Hygiene hypothesis
The theory that we live too cleanly

-Over the past 50 years incidence of infectious disease have steadily decreased


-At the same time incidence of immune diseases have skyrocketed

Dysbiosis
Imblanace of microbiota due to environmental changes

E.g. Streptococcus mutans overgrowth due to high carbohydrate intake

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT)
Replacing the microbiota of C.Dif patients with that of a healthy donor
Probiotics
Live microorganisms that promote health and growth to the host
Prebiotics
A selectively fermented ingredient that results in specific changes, both in composition and activity of the gut microbiota
Synbiotics
Combining prebiotic and probiotic approaches to allow for duel benefits

-Enhance probiotic survival with prebiotic

Gnotobiotic
-Microbiologically monitored environment or animal that is germ free

or


-Environment where or animal in which identities of all microbiota are known

Conventionalization
Method in which germ-free animals are inoculated with gut microbiota to populate the GI tract