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118 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the valgus test?
test MCL
push knee "in" to test integrity of MCL
What is the Varus test?
test LCL
puch knee"out" to test integrity
what is the lunate surface
articular surface on the hip (cart)
cresent shaped
transfers body weigth
what extends the hip socket?
what is the opening in the lunate surface called? what is it closed by
acetabular notch
transverse acetabular ligament
fovea capitis
pit in head of femur
where ligament of the head of the femur connects
artery to the head of the femur is there (from obturator)
what ligament helps hold the femur to the hip?
ligament of the head of the femur
name the 3 ligs that connect the os coxea to the femur
what is the strongest lig that hold the femur and os coxea together? is it anterior or posterior
anterior is stronger!
iliofemoral is strong. its Y shaped
what lig is from AIIS to intertrochanteric line?
what lig is from superior pubic ramus to greater trochanter?

iliopectineal bursea
where does the iliopectineal bursa lie? what structures does it protect?
on the anterior side of the hip joint capsule.
lies btwn iliofemoral and pubofemoral ligs. protects the ligs from rubbing the iliopsoas
what is the lig that connects the hip joint posteriorly to greater trochanter?
not as strong post (only 1 lig)
easiest position for hip dislocation?
hip flexed
medially rotated

*think getting out of a car
**the femur can slip right out of the back of the socket
what blood supply to neck of femur
retinacular branched from medial/lateral circumflex femoral aa
what is the fundamental relationship btwn the iliospoas and the vessels supplying the head of the femur
medial circumflex wraps around the iliopsoas tendon
what a supplies the head of the femur? what is its course? what does it branch from?
the obturator gives a branch called the artery to the head of the femur, it runs in the ligament to the head of the femur
what prevents necrosis if the medial/lateral circumflex femoral aa are damaged?
artery to the head of the femur
what is Legg Calve Perths Disease
when the blood supply is interrupted to the head of the femur bc the growht plate of femoral head seperates. the femur head undergoes necrosis
who has a larger than normal hip angle? who has a smaller than normal hip angle?
old ppl have short angles: coxa vara
babies have large angles: coxa valga
coxa vara
Vara: old folks, the angle is more 90*
coxa valga
Valga: babies, the angle is more 180*
what is the angle of anterversion? what is it normally? what does it tell us about?
compare the axis of femoral neck to axis of femoral condyle

usually 12 angle of anterversion
it gives us "toeness" pigeon toed
what do you knoe about someone who is pigeon toed
toes point in
angle of anterversion greater than 12

**neck of femur is rotated medially compared to the horizontal axis of femoral condyles
what happens to the angle of anterversion when a person walks with their toes facing out
angle of anterversion is less than 12.
neck of femur lines up with axis of condlyes
what bone has the patellar groove?
what is the fibulas role in the knee joint?
nothing! no articulation but it is an attachment side for mm and does some support
what mm attach to fibula?
biceps femoris
what is the action of the knee? does the action change when it is flexed vs extended?
an extended knee cant rotate
a flexed knee can medially/laterally rotate
when is a knee more likely to be injured? why?
when it is flexed
the joint is less stable

**an extended knee cant rotate
the knee joint isnt a perfect fit like the hip? in teh knee what bone is round, what bone is flat

is this strong?
round: femur
Flat: tibia (tibial plateau)

NOT stong!
lateral has a Little space
Medial has a more comma shape

**interact with condyles
Coxa Vera/Coxa Valga deal with...
Angle of Anterversion deals with
Geno Varum/Genu Valgus/ Genu recurvatum (Mediolateral Misalignments deal with)
Coxa Vera/Valga deal with the angle of femur relative to where the hip is (leg length)
Anterversion deals with axis of hip relative to axis of condlyes (toedness)
Mediolateral Misalignments: knee position: bow legs, knock knees, back ward knees
what happens when there is more space btwn the knee joint on the lateral side?
bow legs
Genu Varum
what happens when there is more space btwn the knee joint on the medial side?
Knock Knees
Genu Valgus
What is bow legs called? what is knock knees called?
BOW: Genu varum
KNOCK: Genu Valgus
if you have bow legs what is likely going on at the hip? what is occuring at the knee? What are the fancy names
Bow legs, space on lateral knee
Hips: larger than normal hip joint

Coxa Valga @ hips
Genu Varus @ Knee
if you have knock knees what is likely going on at the hip? what is occuring at the knee? What are the fancy names
at the hip you have a smaller than normal angle
at the knee you have space on the medial side

Coxa Vara @ hips
Genu Valgus @ knee
Coxa Valga
Coxa Vara
Genu Varum
Genu Valgus
Genu Recurvatum
Coxa Valga: large angle
Coxa Vera: short angle
Genu Varum: Bow
Genu Valgus: Knock
Genu Recurvatum: posterior bow
coxa vara goes with...
coxa valgus goes with...
genu valgus
genu varum
the apex of the patella points...
down (inferior)
on the articular surface of the patella how can you determine the lateral surface? why?
is Larger

lateral surface resists the pull of vastus lateralis
where does the patella articulate?
on the patellar groove on the femur
Name the 4 bursea associated with the knee
1. suprapatella: continuation of synovial joint. deep to quads
2. Prepatellar: btwn skin and patella
3. Superficial Infrapatellar: btwn skin and patellar lig
4. Deep Infrapatellar: btwn patellar lig and tibia
what is it called when you knee gets super inflammed due to bursea irritation
**common to inflame prepatellar bursa
How would you aspirate fluid from the knee? what position is the knee in? medial or lateral? landmarks
flexed knee
lateral epicondyle of femur
apex of patella
lateral tubercle of tibia
what ligs support the hinge function of the knee?
what lig is attached to the medial mediscis (how can you tell the meniscus is medial?
its comma shaped
are the MCL LCL part of the joint capsule?
nope, they are extracapsular
where does the MCL attach?
Femur: medial epicondyle
Tibia: medial condyle
Where does the LCL attach?
Femur: lateral epicondyle
Fibula: head
what is the attachment of the ACL
Superior: lateral
Inferior: medial
what is the attachment of the PCL
Superior: medial
Inferior: lateral
Are the ACL/PCL intracapsular?
what is stronger? ACL or PCL
what motion does the ACL prevent?
anterior motion of tibia
what motion does the ACL prevent?
posterior motion of the tibia

**stabilized knee when it is flexed and bearing weight (walking down hill)
Valgus Test
Verus Test
Valgus: tests MCL
Varus: tests LCL
tests MCL and is the one when knees are medial (knock knees)
tests LCL adn is the one when knees are lateral (bow legs)
Anterior Drawer Test
Posterior Drawer Test
Anterior: tests ACL by moving knee forward
Posterior: tests PCL by poving knee post
what is the best position for a knee to be in for an ACL injury
What is the best position for the knee to by in for a PCL injury/
ACL: resists anterior movement of tibia, extended knee with anterior blow, hyper extension, excessive lateral rotation of femur on fixed tibia

PCL: resistes posterior motion of tibia, excessive post displacement of tibia ie fall on tibial tuberosity on flexed knee
a blow to the medial or lateral knee will likely result in what ligament being damaged?
what is the unhappy tirad?
knee injury

knee flexed
knee rotated
knee gets a lateral blow!

1. MCL tear
2. Medial Meniscus tears
3. ACL tears
what motion does the proximal tibiofibular joint allow?
slides when you dorsi/plantarflex the foot
what type of joint is the proximal tibiofibular? distal?
proximal: synovial
distal: fibrous
what role does the distal tibiofib joint play on the ankle joint
what foot bone does the lateral malleolus of the fibula interact with
what maintains the position of the tib/fib?
interossuous membrane
what is the main distal tib/fib ligament?
interosseous ligament. (inferior most portion of interosseous membrane)
besides the interosseous ligament. what 2 other ligs support the distal tib/fib joint?
anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament
posterior inferior tibiofibular joint
the mortise of the ankle is what?
its the distal tibio/fib joint that articulates with the talus

medial/lateral malleolus
distal tib
ant/post inferior tibiofibular ligs
what is the articular portion of the talus?
trochlea, it interacts with the mortise of the talocrural joint (ankle)
describe the shape of the trochlea of the talus
its wedge shaped and more narrow posteriorly

**when foot is plantar flexed there is less articulation and the joint is weaker
most common postion for ankle injury?
plantar flexed

sudden inversion
what is the strong medial ligament for ankle support? what are its portions
stabilizer during eversion
connects the medial malleolus of the tibia to the: calcaneous, talus, navicular

what makes the ankle harder to evert?
the SUPER stong deltoid ligament on the medial side
what connects to the sustentaculum tail? what bone is the sustentaculum tail on?
on calcaneous

the tibiocalcaneal part of the deltoid ligament attaches here
what ligament supports the lateral side of the ankle?
the LCL of the ankle
3 parts:
anterior talofibular
posterior talofibular
why is it easir to invert your foot?
weak lateral ligament, strong medial (deltoid) ligament
what is an avulsion fracture?
breaking part of malleolus
on x rays distinguish growth plates and fractures
growth plates are seen in ALL bone ends
Potts Fracture
forced eversion!
medial malleolus avulsion, talus forces lateral malleouls to break
what vessels supply the malleoui
malleolar branches from teh ant/post tibial a
what n can be compressed on the anterior part of ankle?
what n can be compressed on the medial side of ankle?
deep fibular
tibial N (tarsal tunnel)
where is the tarsal tunnel?
flexor retinaculum
medial malleolus to calcaneous
what happens in tarsal tunnel syndrome?
tibial N is compressed in flexor retinaculum.
post tibial A

synovial sheath inflammation
pain in heel
motor/sensory disruption
what is the joint btwn the calcaneous and talus? what does it allow?
what are the transverse tarsal joint? what is this supposedly good for? what motion do they allow?

good location for amputation but its not ususlly done here, its dont more distally, transmetatarsal
inversion eversion
what joints allow for inversion/eversion
transverse tarsal
what ligament extends from plantar surface of calcaneous to cuboid?
long plantar lig
where does the short plantar lig attach?
deep to long plantar lig
calcaneous to cuboid
what is anotehr name for the spring ligamnet? where does it attach? function?
plantar calcaneonavicular
sustentaculum tail to navicular
support talus/medial longitudinal arch
what ligament supports the talus?
spring (plantalcalcaneonavicular)
what ligs attach to the sustentaculum tail?
what do the arches of the foot allow? where are they located
weight transfer from tibia to talus
talus then distrubutes weight to calcaneous and metatarsals

arches are btwn the weight bearing point of the foot
medial longitudinal arch is supported by what?
sping ligament

weight btwn calcaneous and metatarsals, withthe talus as the keystone
what is a key diffrence btwn the lateral and medial longitudinal arch
lateral is a shallow arch and rests on the ground when standing
less weight transfer
Transverse Arch of the Foot: location/
across the bases of the metatarsals (tarsal metatarsal joints
what supports arch integrity?
interlocking natrue of bones
tendons of mm
plantar lig
plantar aponeurosis
name 4 ligs that support arches?
1. plantar aponeurosis
2. plantar calcaneonavicular (spring)
3. plantar calcaneocuboid (short plantar)
4. Long plantar
what mm tendons support the medial arch?
1. TA
2. FHL
3. AbD Hallucis
4. FDL
5. FDB
what mm supports the transverse arch?
fibularis longus
adductor hallucis
what happens when the medial is no longer supported
pes planus
flat foot, medial structures Tom Dick and harry are stressed
What is the opposite of Pes Planus
pes cavus
claw foot, tall lateral arch
waht aa supply the subtalar joint?
posterior tibial and fibular (talus/calcaneous)
what aa supply the transverse tarsal joint?
anterior tibial
what is the action of MTP joints?
plantar lig
on the MTP joint of one phlange
deep transverse metatarsal ligament
connect metatarsals at the MTP joint
prevent spread of rays
what is a bunion
hallux valgus
what causes hallux valgus
sesamoid bones btwn ray 1 and ray 2
what ligaments are found on PIP and DIP? what aa supply these joint?
collateral ligaments (sides)
plantar ligaments (plaves, on the phlange)
dorsal and plantar digital aa
where is the deep arch? plantar or dorsal?
Deep plantar arch
the dorsal foot has the arcruate
what is a bunion
hallux valgus
what causes hallux valgus
sesamoid bones btwn ray 1 and ray 2
what ligaments are found on PIP and DIP? what aa supply these joint?
collateral ligaments (sides)
plantar ligaments (plaves, on the phlange)
dorsal and plantar digital aa
where is the deep arch? plantar or dorsal?
Deep plantar arch
the dorsal foot has the arcruate