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74 Cards in this Set

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Hay-Herran Treaty- Jan 1903

1) US gives Colombia $10 million plus $250k annually.


2) Colomb. gives US 6 miles wide canal zone for 100 years renewable if the US wants it. Colombia approaches- Pan Canal Corp and asks for $10million. The US says no. Colombia Increas. US payment from $10 million to $15million Roosevelt is outraged. Colombia senate unanimously turns down the treaty.

1) Delome Letter-Feb. 9th 1898

Spanish Minister


a) Delome Insults Pres. Mckinley


b) suggests that Spain is insencere in negot. w/ USA- playing for time

March 1898 US to Spain

1) immediate termination of reconstruction policy (Spain had suspended not abolished it) 2) armistice (accept Cuban indep.)


3) accept of "good office of US" (3rd party to negotiate)


4) calls for Cuban Indepe.

Spain responds:

1) abolish the reconstruction policy


2) cease fire April 1898

Teller passes [Teller Amenment] of April 16th

1) rejected US sovereignity over Cuba


2) US "jurisdiction or control of Cuba for reasons of pacification" Pacification-"stability, protect life, liberty, property it gave the US intervention in another country.

Spanish American 1 May- 12 August 18th Treaty of Paris 10 Dec. 1898-1899

1)Spain relinquishes sovereignity over Cuba


2) Spain cedes Puerto Rico, Guam cedes Phillipines to the US


3) US pays Spain $20M for Phillipines

Spanish- American war consequence

1) consolidated US hegemony in WH 2) Project US power/ interests into Asia 3) Creating a system of protectorates 4) US annexes Hawaii

Theodore Roosevelt 1901-1909

1) 4th extens. of Monroe Doctrine


a) B and Germ. blockade Venezuela for non-payment of debt. Leave it and take their case to the World Court. MD prohibits European use of military force in WH to collect debt.

2nd Treaty - Hay-Pauncefote- Nov. 1901

US has exclusive control and fortification rights for central-american canal. Walker Comm- NC route 8 Jan, 1902. Congress passes the Spooner Act June 1902. Approved Pan route, buy Pan Canal Comp. assets for $40Million

Hay-Herran Treaty- Jan 1903

1) US gives Colombian $10 million plus $250k annually.


2) Colomb. gives US 6 miles wide canal zone for 100 years renewable if the US wants it. Colombia approaches- Pan Canal Corp and asks for $10million. The US says no. Colombia Increas. US payment from $10 million to $15million Roosevelt is outraged. Colombia senate unanimously turns down the treaty.

Hay-Bunau- Varilla Treaty 23rd Feb. 1904 (treaty 18th, Nov. 1903)

1) Perpetual land of Grant 10 miles wide to the US where the US possesses "all rights, power, and authority as if it were the sovereign of the territory"


2) US would protect Panimanian Indep.


3) US would pay Panama $10 million


4) after 9 years US would pay Panama an annual fee of $250k


5) US would pay Panama Comp. Co $40 million.

Roosevelt Coorolatary to the Monroe Doctrine

(5th applica. to the Monroe Doctrine)


US would enforce internal law in the WH to preclude European Intervent. b/c MD "prohibits" such intervention.

First Applicat. of RCOTMD:

Dominican Republic Jan 1905 US Domini. Rep. Agreement


1) US would manage the DR debt.


2) US officials collected tarriff revenue for DR est. debt repayment schedule.

Dollar Diplomacy

1) use of US govt. and privates capitol to incr. LA stability and decrea. causes for Europe. intervention.


a) US bank loans to LA


b) encourage private US invest. in LA


c) US officials in charge of LA customs houses.

Augt. 1913 pres. Wilson- Plan:

1) armistice 2)free elections 3) Huerta not a candidate 4) US will recog. a new gov. 5) hint of US aid Carranza

9 April 1914 Mexican arrests US sailors officers

Henry Mayo- commander (big ego of alaska)


Demands a formal 21 gun salute and an apology. 20th April 1914- USA use of force US troops attack Veracruz on 21st April occupy-----> (US troops evacuate Veracruz Nov. 1914)

Wilson and Caribbean Basin 1913-1921

1) Haiti-Wilson sends troops in 1915 to est. order: 2k marines (intervention US of miltary force)? 1915-19342) Dominican Republic- Revolu. breaks out sept. 1913May 1916- sends 400 maines US Military gov. 1916- 1924 New Treaty Customs Receiver Ship


3) Nicaragua US troops 1909-1910, 1912-1925Byron-Chamorro Treaty approved feb. 1916Nicaragua gives the USa canal option: US gives Nicaragua $3million


4) Wilson sends troops to Cuba 1917-1922


5) Wilson sends troops to Panama twice, Honduras 5x's


6) USA purchases the Virgin Islands from Denmark

Brazil- USA UNWRITTEN ALLIANCE

(Commissions) 1) Bolivia 1903 2)Venezuela 3) Colombia 1907 4) Peru 1909 Gained territory in these 4 disputes equal in the size of France Three Foreign Policy Goals:


1) Delinate and expand Brazils borders.


2) leadership role in SA


3) increa. prestige and power for Brazil

Drago Doctrine (1902)

Luis Drago could not be the basis for armed inter. or occupation of a territo. of any Americ. State.

Calvo Clasue (doctrine)

Carlo Calvo Argentine, no state shall interfere in the affairs of another state for any reason. State [sovereignty]:no higher authority in that territory.

1) First Pan-American Wash. DC 1889-1890 Secret. of state- Blaine [Pan-Am Union]

a) est. common office of the American Republics

2) Second American Conf. Mexico City 1901

1)accepted voluntary arbitr. b) right of aliens 3) arbitra. of financial claims

3) Third Pan-Am Conf. Rio De Janeiro 1906

Not a disaster greek (evil star) Secret. of State Elihu Root convinces the delegates that the US has no interests in conquests or occupation it accepts juridicial equality of states.

4) Pan-Am Constitu. Buenos Aires 1910

Changes the name of the organiz. of Pan-Am Union to Organiz. of the WH

5) Fifth Intern-American Conference- Santiago de Cuba, 1923

Mexico, Chile, and Peru did not attend. LA attendees pushed very strongly for US renunciation of right if intervention. Secret. of State Charles Evan Hughes MD seld detente LA Region Organization- US no

6) Sixth Intern- American Havana 1928

Calvin Coolidge attends 1st, presiden. to attend. Stalemate- LA is trying to limit US power through the adoption of both doctrines. LA resolution- no state has a right to intervene in the internal affairs of another for any reason USA blocked action.

Constitution of 1917, Article 27, Mexico,

Mexico, owns all subsoil rights. US Mexico must abandon Art. 27, Mexico not going to change constituion, Mexico needed diplom. recogn by the US to get bank loans.

Bucarli Conference/ Agreement

Mexico Supreme court- foreigners would not exper retro-active enfor. of article 27 if they had engaged in "postitive acts". To develop their land. Charles Evans Highes (1921-1925) Calvin Coolidge (1923-29) 31st Augs. 1923- Bucarli Agreem. USA extends diplom. recogn. to Mexico

USA Caribbean Basin:

1) US removes troops from Dominican Republic in 1924


2)US removes troops from Nicaragua 1925


Herbert Hoover (1929-1933)-(Henry Stinson- Secret. of State)

1) US removes troops from Nicaragua Jan. 1932


2) US refues to send troops troops to LA countries which exper. revolts "good neighboor"

FDR1933-1945 Good Neighboor:

1) Trade reciprocity (mutual reduction of tariffs)


2) non-intervention (military)


3) non-interference (not used non military means) to change gov./ govt. personel govt. policy

Multi-Lateral Confernces-

Cuba, Panama, USA LA WWII, Multi-Lateral Conference framework, 9th inter-american Dec. 1938.


Agree to work multi laterally in case of European War. Meetings of consultation 1st Sept. 1939 WH Neutrality, 300 mile security zone.

US-LA WWII WH

1) Panama Canal-Colombia


2) Bulge of Brazil land lease 1941 US foreign any program-prez- 1)Britain 2) USSR

(Truman Doctrine)

1) Greatest Threat to the US is Communism


2) Communism great. threat b/c its an expansion (ideology)


3) Comm. is the great. threat b/c ideology of the 2nd most powerful country in the world. 4) US is only country that is able limit (contain) communist expansion Policies:


1) foreign aid a) military b) economic aid


2) covert action 3) regional military alliances 4) use of US troops

Rio Pact:

Creates 1st regional collection organiz. an attack on one alliance on all. 1947 (2/3 of states) organiz. of America State 1848. US sends military aid.

Good Neighboor:

Policy of US gov. towards LA during presidency of FDR (1933-1945). The Good Neigboor Policy has three components:


1) committment to principle of non-intervention


2) committment to principle of non-interference;


3) trade repicprocity

Reasons for the implementation of the Good neighboor?

1) US realized the depth of hostility to it by LA countries because US refusal to accept principles of non-intervention and non-interference and that that hostility was hindering the attainment of its foreign policy goals.


2) US Open Door Policy in China (no country should be given preferential treatment within China and that Chinese territorial integrity and sovereignity should be respected by all countries) put the USA in opposition to Japanese intervention in China while the USA was defending its intervention in LA.

(7th) Pan-American Conference at Montevideo, Uruguay (November 1933)

the USA supported the resolution "no state has the right to intervene in the internal or external affairs of another" in principle but reserved the right to intervene if the defense of US citizens or property required it in compliance with a treaty or international law.

(8th) Pan-American Conference at Buenos Aires (1936)

President Roosevelt attended and the USA unconditionaly accepted of the principle in 1936 in the USA under Roosevelt and his Secretary of State Cordell Hull (1933-1944) were implementing the Good Neighboor in LA. In August 1933 by an executive agreement, US withdrew its Marines from Haiti.

1939 New Treaty - USA/CUBA

1) US protecorate of Panama abolished


2) USA right of intervention in Panama cancelled


3) USA renounced right to claim additional territory in Panama outside of the Canal Zone 4) USA annual payments to Panama increased from $250k-$430k

USA retreated from its position for arbitration because: Mexico and USA on oil 1942

1) Success of Germany in first year of WWII


2) Sinclair Oil (US Company) and Mexico came to an agreement on compensation


3) US settlement with Bolivia over its expropriation of US oil properties.

Section 3:Of Good Neighbor-Trade recicprocity

the economic side of the GN. The US gov. establ. the Export-Inport Bank in 1934 to provide loans to US bussinesses to help them increase exports of their products.

the Reciprocal Trade Act of 1934-

which allowed the president to negotiate bi-lateral trade agreements designed to lower tariffs between the US and the other country. (From 1929 to 1932 US exports to LA fell by 78%. USA signed reciprocal trade treaties with eleven LA countries from 1934-1939 and signed 4 additional treaties from 1940- 1945. These treaties helped reverse declines in US- LA trade.

9th Pan-American conference in Lima, Peru in December 1939 resolution

passed a resolution, sometimes referred to as the Declaration of Lima, that all the countries would consult multilaterally in case an European war broke out or other threats to the West Hemisp. security emerged.

The First Meeting of Consultation of Foreign Affairs Ministers was held in Panama City.

1)The conference est. west. hemips. neutrality by establ. a 300 mile security zone around North and South America and told the belligerants to stay out.


2) The US Congress passed amendments to the Neutrality Acts whereby countries could buy US armaments as long as they paid for them. (Nov 1939)


3)At the second meeting of consultation in Havana, July 1940 the countries passed a resolution for the West. hemisp. collective security.i.e. and attack on one country will be viewed as an attack on all countries in the west. hemisp. and accepted the no transfer principle.


4) In Sept. 1940 USA and Britain to exchange 50 USdestroyers for British military bases in the WH. In June 1940, US congress overwhemingly passed no-transfer resolution.


5) US congress passed law - lend lease in March 1941. The law authorized the US president to sell, exchange, lease, lend, defense artices to any country whose defense he considered vital to the defense of the USA.


6) After Pearl Harbor, the Third Meeting of Consultation met in Rio De Janeiro in January 1942. The conference recommended but did not require (like Hull wanted) that the WH countries break diplom. relations with the Axis countries.


7) 9 Countries of the Caribbean Basin did so in Dec. 1940 Very quickly all LA countries had broken diplomatic relations with the Axis except: Chile (until Jan. 1943) and Argentin. (Jan. 1944)

Emergency Advisory Comittee for Political Defense

based in Montevido, Uruguay to report on espionage and subversion; and est. an Inter-American Defense Board with headquarters in Washington DC and represented by military officials of all of the American republics.

USA gave Brazil massive economic aid in exchange for wartime cooperation.

Background: Brazil had had a strong trade relations with Germany in late 1930's. 1/6 of B exports went to Germany yet Brazil turned to allies. WHY?:


1) Brazil knew that Germany could not continue its side of the trade realtionship during wartime.


2) war would also prevent Gernany sending military supplies to Brazil.


3) Brazil would gain clear economic advantage from increased trade with the USA.

Under the Land- Lease Act,

the USA announced in march 1942 that it would lend Brazil $100million for production of strategiv items; 14 million for iron productions and railroads, 5million for rubber production; and 5 million for health.

After Germany sank 17 Brazilian ships, Brazil declared war on Germany on August 22, 1942

Vargas granted US Admiral Ingrim temporary authority over tht Brazilian navy and air force during WWII, Brazil received $200million in military aid. WWII helped Brazil to create the most powerful armed forces in LA.

At Chapultepec Conference in March 1945

Argentina promised to declare war on Germany and Japan and did so on March 27th, 1945. US ambassador Spruille Braden in May 1945 tried to undercut the Argentine military gov. unsuccessfully.

In January 1942 USA and Mexico establ. a Joint Mexico-USA Defense Comission.

German subs sank two Mexican tankers (Mexico had broken dipomatic relations with the Axis days after Pearl Harbor) in May 1942 and Mexican Congress declared war on the Axis. Mexico used the $40 million in lend lease money for the military. Mexico sent an air squadron to the Phillipines which engaged in combat from June to August 1945.

Chile was neutral in 1939, 1940, 1941, and 1942.

Japan had made it clear that Chile would not be attacked if they stayed neutral. Nazis were allowed to operate as a legal party but subject to intemittent harassment. Chile demanded a special defense agreement with USA and antiaircraft weapons and recon planes in order to break relations with the Axis. USA was understanding of Chile's position early in the war because it knew that it could not protect Chile from Japanese attacks. USA sent a memo to Inter-American Emergency Advisory Comittee concerning Axis espionage activities in Chile. When the memo was made public, Chile broke dipomatic relations with the Axis in January 1943, signed the Lend Lease Agreement in March 1943, and declared war on Axis in February 1945.

Colombia

was very important to USA because it was the closest country on mainland of South America to the Panama Canal. Colombian policy in WWII was molded by president Eduardo Santos 1938-1942. In 1938, Santos invited a US naval mission to replace a British naval group to train the Colombian navy. In mid-1939 he promised that no one would would be allowed to menace the Panama Canal from Colombia. In 1939, German personnel of the Colombia airline were discharged and replaced by Colombian and US pilots. Colombia broke off diplo. relations with Japan and Germany shortly after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Colombia froze the assets of all axis nationals in 1943. Colombia signed a Lend Lease agreem. in May 1942 totalling $6.5 million an sent all of its rubber production to the US. Declared war on Axis on November 1943

17th March 1959 - A program of covert action against the Castro regime

1) Est. a responsible opposition to Castro outside of Cuba


2) Develop. a paramilitary force outside of Cuba


3) Est. a propaganda offensive against Castro within Cuba


4) est. a covert action/ intelligence within Cuba

July 1960- Eisenhower Authorizes a social progress trust find. $500million US loans, health ed, housing land reform (IDB)

Eisenhower


1) Prohibits US refineries in Cuba processing Soviet Crude (Oil)


2) Decre. US Cuban Sugar quote by 70,000 tons


3) Imposed a trade embargo prohibiting all US exports to Cuba except food/medicine

Alliance for Progress- Aid program:

1) goals were to end illiteracy, hunger and disease in LA


2) US promised $500 million to support economic planning and socio-economic reforms- democracies


3) Goal- 2.5% growth per year

Reasons for failure of A for P (The Kennedy and Johnson gave $18billion in public and [private] investment)

1) LA elite hostile to reform, saw reform leading to revolutions


2) US inflated expect. solve centuries problems in 10 years (35 year life expectancy) 90% illiterate.


3) LA pop. 3% incr. per year


4) LA structural equalities land distribut. 5%-7%

Kennedy-Covert action proposal BAY OF PIGS

US joint chief of state -failure. CIA-1,500 Face 225,000 Cuban troops.


15th April- Deploy an Air Strike against Cuba Castro- anti-Castro cuba arrested 200 were killed and the rest are just captured.

Cuban Missile Crisis Oct. 1962

US knew 14th Oct. USSR missile


Kennedy 16th Oct.- ExCom: Executive Committee Makes a quarantine- not a blockade Threat of future actions 22 Oct. 1962- TV address


a) rally US public opinion


b) decrea. chance that Kennedy would back down


c) convey seriousness


26th Oct. Khrushchev


1) USSR promises not to invade Cuba


27th Oct. -Khrushchev


1) USSR remove missiles


2) USA not invade Cuba


3) US removes missiles from Turkey

Anatoly Dobrynin

1) US must remove missiles with in 2 days or US will remove them


2) USA will remove its missiles from Turkey but secretly

Mann Doctrine

US support for anti-communist govt. even if they are military dictatorship.

New Panama Canal Treaties 7th September 1977 Treaty One:

1) USA would control Canal up to 31st Decem. 1999


2) Joint responsibility for Canal Interim


3) Pan. would receive $10million year and % of the operating revenues

Pan Canal T. Treaty Two:

USA would maintain the rights to defend the Canal after 31st, Dec. 1999 March/ April 1978 Senate 68/32

Argentina-General Videla- " Dirty War"

(10,000 were killed dissaperances) Secretary of State- Cyrus Vance, the US forbid to Argentina to cut from $32 million to $15million US blocked loans to Argentina World Bank IMF IDB. Trade Penalties (Argentina declined human right abuses)

Brazil (1964-1985) Presdient Geisel

US state department issues a report on B human rights violation cancelled rights violation, the president would cancel 25 year military assisstance agreement. Brazil nuclear energy plants (Carter/Vance 1977, 78) went to Brazil

Chile-Pinochet

The US would cut aid to Chile in 1977


Orlando Letelier


Sept. 21st, 1976 Wash. DC car bomb explodes in front of white hosue? US wants 3 Chileans to be extraditted

Mariel:

Carter: want to join your families


Mariel: 100,000/ estim./ Castro empties Cuban jails convicts


US-Cuba 1978 Castro released 3,600 political prisoners spring 1980 Castro- Any Cuban that wishes to lave Cuba may do so- Peruvian Visas (thousands)

Sandinistas:

National Liberation Front


Augusto Sandino- Fought USA late 1920's-30's Civil War National Guard (hated)10 January 1978 Pedro Chamorro- La Prensa ((killed assassinated)) strikes- 3 weeks Nationalism, Marxism, Liberation, Theology


20th June 1979, ABC reporter gets shot (while the camera is still rolling) June/July 1979 Somoza resigns

State of Seize (martila law)

March 24th, 1980- Arch Bishop Oscar Romero Funeral 50 people at the funeral were killed, 600 were wounded


2 organiz. were created: Democratic Revolut. Front (FDR) April 18th, 1980 (Umbrella Group)


(FMLN) Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front

El Salvador- Civil War UN Secret. General Xavier Perez de Cuellar (1st Latin American) New York accords Dec. 31, 1991

1) guerillas lay down their arms


2) El Salvador would reduce their size of armed forces


3) end military abuses


4) Guaran. of political and human rights (UN peace keeping force)

George Bush (1989-1993) End of the USSR/ Cold War

1) decreased rivalry amont great powers in WH W. Europe turned to E. Europe and the USSR


2) USSR Security Threat to USAin Central America ceased to exist when USSR died


3) Confused 6 LA politics reduced US incentive to interfere/ intervene

NAFTA- USA, Canadam and Mexico (presid. Salinas)

1) Elimination pf tariffs and non-tariff barriers on manufa. goods.


2) Gradually eliminate tariff and NTB's in agri.


3) Liberalize trade services- Natl. Treat.


4) Incr. Intell. property right protection

Drug War Types:

1) USA vs traffickers


2) LA govt. vs trafficking


3) LA govt. vs guerillas


4) Traffickers vs traffickers


5) traffickers vs guerillas

NAFTA- Side Agreement

1) enviornment 2) workers rights


Congress- NEWTGDNG RICH (Nov. 1993) passed