Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

248 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Topographical points where a valley crosses at a ridge line.


Existing contours are shown with ________.

Dashed Lines

Proposed contours are shown with _________.

Solid Lines

Slope Formula


RI= (S)(RU)


Slope Expressions for 1% Slope





Slope Expression for 2% Slope





Slope Expression for 3% Slope





Slope Expression for 5% Slope





Slope Expression for 8.33% Slope





Spot elevations for hardscape should be calculated to within ________ ft?


Spot elevations for softscape should be calculated to within ________ ft?


Existing spot elevations are inclosed in _________,

proposed spot elevations are not.


_____ % is the minimum for draining water across very smooth and rigid materials such as storm drains, gutters and concrete slabs.


______ % is a workable minimum for shedding surface water across paving materials.


_____ % is the generally recommended gradient for most any surface.


_____ % is the gradient at which slopes become obvious to the human eye.


______ % is the maximum slope allowed for ADA without a ramp.


______ % is the maximum longitudinal gradient allowed on ramps.


_____ % is acceptable for pathways that do not have to meet ADA code.


______ % is the maximum gradient for lawns or hillsides that require machine access.


____ % is the maximum gradient for cut fill slopes.


A ________ provides a transition between two sloped roadways, allowing a vehicle to negotiate the elevation rate change at a gradual rate rather than a sharp cut.

vertical curve

Generally speaking the finish floor elevation should be ________ above the surrounding finish grade.


Typically, the side of a swale should be no steeper than _______ and the most common longitudinal slope for a swale is _______.



Swales should be a minimum of ______ deep.


In the US rainfall is generally measured in ______.

CFS (Cubic Feet per Second)

A cubic foot contains _________ gallons of water?

7.5 gallons

Rational Method for measuring runoff.


What do the letter in Q=CIA stand for?

Q =Peak Discharge in CFS

C = Composite Runoff Coefficient for the


I = Rainfall Intensity in inches per hour

A = Area of watershed in acres

_________ square feet in one acre?


The time in minute that it takes a drop of water to travel from the hydrologically most distant point in a watershed to the outlet. Used to calculate the I value in Q=CIA.

Time of Concentration (Tc)

Equation used to calculate swale, channel, and gutter capacity and pipe sizing.

Manning's Equation

Graph used to calculate pipe sizes.


_______ is measured from the top of pipe to finish grade?


The _________ of a pipe is the lowest elevation inside of a pipe?


Occurs whenever the water level immediately downstream of a pipe outlet rises above the downstream invert of the pipe.


Minimum cover on any drain pipe is _________?


To reduce clogging, pipe sizes should never be _______ in the downstream direction.


What are the 5 basic types of foundations?

1. Slab on Grade

2. Pier and Grade Beam

3. Spread or Strip Footing with Crawl Space

4. Spread Footing with Basement

5. Pole Foundations

________ is the minimum elevation difference between finish grade and any wooden part of the structure.


When determining FF elevations based on boring information it is often useful to create a ________ which includes _________.

A Matrix

The names of each bore location

Existing Grade Elevation

Bedrock Elevation

Finish Floor Elevation

Guardrails are required when there is a _______ drop or greater within _______ of a path, parking lot or driveway.

2.5' (30")

3' (36")

Opening in guardrails cannot be large enough for a _________ ball to pass through the opening.


At least ________% of public entrances must be ADA compliant.


Minimum clear width for an ADA path?

3' (36")

Maximum rise at a door threshold?


Minimum width of curb ramp (exclusive of flared sides).

3' (36")

Landing depth at top of curb ramp?

4' (48")

Max slope of flared sides of curb ramps?

1:10 (0.1 or 10%)

Ramp landings are required for every _______ of vertical gain?

2.5' (30")

Ramp landings are required for every ______ of horizontal change?


On ramps, a change in direction requires a ______?


Ramp landing shall be a minimum of ________ clear?


If a ramp has a rise greater than ______ or a run greater than _______ a _______ is required.




All handrails shall have a circular cross section with an outside diameter of at least _______ and no greater than _______.

1 1/4"


What is the maximum and minimum riser height on stairs?



What is the minimum tread depth?


Tread shall have a wash slope of _______.


Stair nosing shall have an angle not less than ________?

60 degrees

Stair nosing shall not project more than _______?

1 1/2"

Steps over ________ shall have handrails on both sides of the stairway.


Top of handrail gripping shall be between ______ and ______.

34" - 38"

On exterior stairs all tread are to have a ________.

Warning Strip (2"-4")

Water loving plants are called?

Hydrophilic Plants

Complete saturated soils with no oxygen in the soil for a period of time.

Hydric Soils

Three aspects of wetlands mitigation that will insure a successful project.

1. Monitoring and Maintenance Plan

2. Contingency Plan

3. A guarantee that the work will be performed as planned and approved.

Common types of sedimentation controls include...

1. Silt Ponds and Basins

2. Sediment Traps

3. Silt Fences

4. Hay Bales

Common erosion control measures....

1. Vegetated Swales

2. Jute Netting

3. Mattion

4. Deep Rooting Plants on Steep Slopes

5. Channel Lining or Armoring

6. Biotechnical Stabilization Methods

________ offers no volume control, peak discharge control only. Relatively simple.

Detention Basin

________ offers both volume and peak discharge control. Must attempt to get water to infiltrate the ground.

Retention Basin

A smaller pond located above larger primary pond whose purpose is to allow sediment to settle out of the water before entering the primary pond.

Sediment Forebay

_______ is a sustainable stormwater management strategy emphasizing a holistic approach to site design and overall sustainable design.

Low Impact Design (LID)

Two primary goals of LID?

1. Minimize the generation of stormwater runoff

2. Treat pollutant loads where they are generated

______ is the process of soil being displaced.


_______ is the product of erosion.


Sediment and Erosion Control Plans typically include these three things:

1. Narrative

2. Maps and Plans

3. Construction Sequence

Sediment control plans consist of two parts:

1. A filter

2. A storage area

Three types of construction documents:

1. Comprehensive Construction Documents

2. Design Control Drawings

3. Annotated Plans and Typical Details

Building on portion of the project at a time.


Building an entire project at one time with careful attention paid to the order in which work is done so as to minimize conflicts between trades.


Four types of technical specifications:

1. Descriptive

2. Performance

3. Proprietary

4. Reference

Specifications that states in thorough detail the materials required and the methods and standards of workmanship to be used to install a specific item.

Descriptive Specification

- also called "Prescriptive" or "Materials and Workmanship" or " Design" Specifications

Specifications used when the LA desires the Contractor to match an existing condition. Also may be used when the appearance of the specified item is not an issue so long as certain criteria are met.

Performance Specification

Specification that indicates a specific product made by one manufacturer.

Proprietary Specification

Specifications that are based on standards which have been established for some materials, installation techniques or testing procedures.

Reference Specification

Surveying that accounts for the curvature of the earth - high degree of accuarcy.

Geodetic Surveying

Survey that assume the earth is flat - used for most site work and subdivision of land.

Plane Surveying

These systems, of which each state has it's own point of origin, act as the official horizontal controls for all survey work and construction in the US.

State Plan Coordinate System

A fixed point on the ground who's location and relative elevation is know.


Series of connected lines, as in property lines.


Horizontal angel relative to true north or south.


Level plane to which elevations are referenced.


Dimensioning technique requiring the highest level of accuracy - to 1/1000th of a foot or less. Used for right of way, easement, property lines and building locations.

Fixed Construction

Dimensioning technique covering most hardscape and structural elements - to 1/8th or 1/100th of a foot.

Semi-Fixed Construction

Dimensioning technique that does not require a high degree of accuracy and may be subject to adjustment based on field observation.

Adjustable Elements

Layout system used for linear elements such as roads. Points on the baseline describe the location from the point of beginning.

Stationing System

POB = 0+00

System where the direction and length of a line are based on its orientation to true north. Never exceed 90 degrees.

Bearing and Distance

Angular directions measured clockwise from true north and run from 0º to 360º


Equation used to calculate the hypotenuse of a triangle.

Pythagorean Theorem

A (squared) + B (squared) = C (squared)

Dimensioning system where the site is laid out on a grid and each element on the site is laid out by giving the coordinates of two of more points on the element. Highly accurate and commonly used by civil engineers

Grid Coordinate Dimensioning System

Point at which a curves tangents intersect.

Point of Intersection (P.I.)

Point at which a curve leaves a tangent line.

Point of Curvature (P.C.)

Point at which a curve intersects with tangent.

Point of Tangent (P.T.)

Beginning of Layout

Point of Beginning (P.B.)

A straight line between the Point of Tangency (P.T.) and Point of Curvature (P.C.)


Septic System Elements (in order)

1. Tight line from house

2. Septic Tank

3. Tight line

4. Diversion Valve

5. Perforated pipe

1' of head = ________ psi


.433 psi is lost or gained with each _____ in elevation


1.0 psi = _______ of head


A certain amount of ______ is lost as water moves through each element in an irrigation system.


The greatest amount of pressure is lost at the _____ in an irrigation system.

Backflow Preventer

Basic Order of Elements in an Irrigation System

1. Water Meter

2. Isolation Valve

3. Backflow Preventer

4. Pressure Regulation Valve (if needed)

5. Quick Coupler

6. Irrigation Laterals

Reclaimed, Harvested or Grey Water is regulated on the ______ level.


Five types of specialty plans new to LARE Exam?

1. Signage and Wayfinding Plan

2. Traffic Control Plan

3. Emergency Access Plan

4. Soil Boring Plan

5. Site Infrastructure Plan (Utility Plan)

A quantitative measurement of the light energy emitted from a source.


Equal to one lumen per square meter.

One Lux

A quantitative measurement that considers the amount of light falling on a point.


Graphic and numeric representation of light levels produced by a given light fixture or lamp.


The amount of light reaching a surface.

Incident Illumination

Involves running heavy vehicles (water truck) over existing subgrade to identify soft spots.

Proof Rolling

Involves running heavy equipment over soil to increase its density.


Aggregate graded select sizes which when combined, form a medium lacking voids.

Dense Graded (well graded) Aggregate

(Class II Cal Tran Ag.)

Aggregate graded for a single size aggregate to allow for voids - jagged edges of particles interlock to form stable base.

Open Graded Aggregate

(Permeable Paving)

Aggregate graded with a select size omitted.

Gap Graded Aggregate

(Some small, some large, medium sizes omitted)

Stair tread equation.

2 x Riser + Tread = 26 +/-

Min. riser?

4 inches

Max riser?

7 inches

Min tread?

11 inches

The chemical inhibition of one plant (or other organism) by another, due to the release into the environment of substances acting as germination or growth inhibitors.


A substance or material applied to a plant, as by spraying, to inhibit moisture loss during transplanting.


The magnitude of a force exerted along the long axis of an object which will try to tear it apart.


A substances tendency to deform and then return to its original shape.


A substances tendency to to deform and not return to its original shape.


The most common test for concrete - used to determine the suitability of the mix before a pour.

Slump Test

Concrete test to determine the compressive strength of concrete.

Cylinder Test

Ideal temperature range for pouring concrete?

50 - 70 degrees

Extreme ranges for pour concrete (extra care must be taken)?

40 - 100 degrees

Rebar is measure in what increment?


Rebar number is determined by what?

Diameter in terms of eighths of inches

#3 = 3/8"

In concrete, ______ are placed at 30' max intervals. When a _____ is present is prevents differential settlement. A ______ must be applied to one side of the _____ to permit horizontal movement.

Expansion Joints

Steel Dowel


Steel Dowel

For concrete paving, ______ are used when construction is stopped for more than 30 mins.

Cold Joint

________ is used for attached stone veneer panels to concrete wall.


______ is used when mounting to the surface of existing concrete.

Expansion Bolt

Generic term that applies to a bolt embedded in wet poured concrete.

Anchor Bolt

A type of anchor bolt with a bend that prevents pullout under extreme force?

J Bolt or L Bolt

Metal anchors used to attached masonry veneer to CMU block core.

Cavity Wall Tie

Dimensions for one board foot?

1 foot long x 1 foot wide x 1 inch thick

Elements in a deck weight transfers through - top to bottom?







A beam is piece of wood laid _____ with its width in the _______ plane.



A wall higher than _____ ft requires calculations from a structural engineer.


Type of wall that is held in place by its own weight and has a battered face.

Gravity Wall

Most common retaining wall. The weight of the soil on the footing prevents overturning.

Cantilever Wall

Type of wall that used a buttress system and is typically designed by engineers?

Counterfort Wall

The horizontal pressure on a wall from the retained soil uphill?


Water pressure in retained soil?

Hydrostatic Pressure

Four common types of wall failures?



Crushing (Buckling or Rupturing)

Settling (Bearing Capacity)

From retaining walls, rebar should always be at least ______ from the edge of concrete and placed on the side of ________.



For wall, the bottom of the _______ should not be below the bottom of the footing?


Maximum fountain depth for safety?


Swimming pools need a ______ high fence for safety?


A wooden brace on a gate should run from ______ corner on the hinge to the ______ corner on the latch side?



A cable or turnbuckle brace on a gate should run from ______ corner on the hinge to the ______ corner on the latch side?



Guardrails are required when there is a _______ vertical within _____ feet of the path of travel?



Minimum height of guardrail?


Typical table height?


Illumination level at building entry?

5 Foot-candles

Illumination levels at park walkways?

0.5 Foot-candles

Illumination levels at infrequently used building entrances?

1.0 Foot-candles

Illumination levels at Class 1 football field?

100 Foot-candles

1 Lux is ______ times 1 Foot-candle?


The term efficacy used in lighting design refers to a lamps ______.


The Color Rendering index is used to rank lamp types according to their _____.

Apparent color and color rendering.

Lamp with high initial cost, good color rending and superior optics?

Metal Halide

Lamp with high initial cost, low long term cost and poor color rendition?

Low Pressure Sodium Lamp

Lamp generally not used for large scale lighting because of their poor efficacy and short lifespan?


Cubic Feet in a Cubic Yard?


Maximum desirable grade along a bike path?


In soil ph range. Acidity is ___ to ___. ____is neutral. ____ to ____ alkaline.




Bituminous concrete is manufactured from _____ and _____.

Aggregate and Bitumens

The white coating found on newly constructed brick work is?


Concrete attains its desired strength at the end of _____ days.


3 types of coatings applied to nails used in exterior conditions?


Stainless Steel

Hot Dipped Galvanized

The height of a retaining wall is measured from ______ to _____.

Bottom of footing to top of wall

In applications that poor soil conditions it is important to install a _________ between the subgrade and base course material .

Seperation barrier (geotextile fabric)

The best season for new planting is ______.


________ involves the establishment of plant materials on hillsides and banks to control erosion and prevent excessive runoff.


In ball and burlap plantings with a basket, twine and burlap, how should these materials be treated?

Completely removed if possible

What is the maximum depth to stockpile soils to prevent compaction under the soils own weight?

4 feet

In the plant installation process the single most important factor in insuring long term viability is ________.

The condition the plants arrive in from the nursery

Construction detail sheet usually convey information through __________.

Orthographic drawings

In order to properly estimate how much water will be used or how much water use will be allowed on a site use the __________ calculation.

Maximum applied water allowance

For a project in a wet or freezing condition, what is the proper base product to use under the asphalt wearing course?

Asphalt treated base

The most economical staking method for a large-scale state highway construction project is _______.

Global Positioning System (GPS) Unit

Survey method used to locate critical elements on a site such as building corners, connection to utilities and other site amenities?

Northing and Easting

Preparation requirements for topsoil stripping and stockpiling would be found in what spec division?

Division 31

For some aspects of a project, the contractor may be given latitude in deciding methods of construction. Prior to final acceptance and payment, these items should be provide to the LA, for approval, in the ________.

As Built Drawings

The standard for concrete are governed by the ______.

American Society to Testing and Materials (ASTM)

Design loads for decks are measured in ______.

Pounds per Square Foot

What unit is used to measure illumination on a surface in the US? Internationally?



When mixing irrigation heads of various radius sizes, the irrigation head nozzles must have matching ______.

Precipitation Rates

The relative compressive strength of a typical concrete sidewalk is directly related to the ratio of what two product?

Cement and Aggregate

What type of admixture is added to concrete to slow down the setting of concrete?


In plane surveying, distances are most commonly measured with _________.

A Foresight and Backsight

The ability of soil to bind together under moderately dry conditions?


Test preformed on the subgrade before pouring of concrete to insure the subgrades suitability?

The Proctor Test Method

Type of surveying method typically used on small to medium sized landscape projects?

Plane Surveying

Mortar is composed of what elements?

Sand, Cement and Water

What is used bond wood together and can be used on dry, wet or treated wood, it is not effected by moisture?

Construction Adhesive

What compaction equipment best suited for aggregate products?

Plate Compactor

What compaction equipment is ideal for colloidal soils and used exclusively with cohesive soils?

Sheep's Foot Roller

When concrete is subject to roadway conditions, the primary criterion for selecting aggregate used in the concrete is ________.


What is the best type of soil to specify as a structural fill material?

Graded gravel (works as well and is cheaper that crushed aggregates)

What should not be include in the construction of a rain garden due to is propensity to clog and compromise the system?

Geotextile Fabric

Vertical revetments, Breakwaters,Sloped revetments and Beach renourishment are all construction techniques to manage ________.

Shoreline Erosion

Installation of composite deck boards should provide for a gap or space betweenparallel boards of which dimension?


The type of contract in which the contractor's payment is based upon measurement ofwork completed is a __________.

Unit Cost

What is the major load bearing element in a wooden deck?


The type of joint used when pouring of concrete is stopped for more than 30 mins.

Construction Joint

Minimum width for a one way ramp? Two way ramp?



Trees on a planting plan should be drawn at ______ of their mature size.


A bundle of rods or sticks bound together for filling in marshy ground or other obstacles and for strengthening the sides of embankments, ditches, or trenches.


What subgrade material is suitable for direct placement of a concrete slab?


Test to measure the compressive strength of concrete?

Schmidt Hammer Test

Seeding and straying is an effects erosion control method if construction site will be unused for ______ says or more.


A general rule for velocity of flow in pipes is not to exceed ______ or be less than _____.

15 ft per sec

1 ft per sec

The ideal flow velocity for pipes in between _____ and ______.

2 - 7 ft per sec

In the US runoff is measure in _______.

CFS (Cubic Feet per Second)

One cubic foot of water contains ____ gallons.


______ is a type of backflow preventer.

Anti Syphon Valve

Optimal operating pressure for spray and drip irrigation systems?

Spray = 50 - 60 psi

Drip = .35 psi

In irrigation design spray for one head to reach ____ heads to insure full coverage.


Typical household lamp bulb. Cheap, inefficient and good optical control (warm tone).


Bulb with OK rendering - cheap and inefficient - difficult optical control - low installation cost (cool tone).


Excellent color rendering - good optical control - long life - high installation cost.

Metal Halide (commonly used on sport fields)

Poor color rendering for blue/green - orange/yellow color - high installation cost - long life

High Pressure Sodium (common street lamp)

Standard exterior construction tolerances for horitzontal measurements is _______.


The _____ of a footing needs to be _____ minimum below the frost line.



Installation of ag base is typically done in lifts of _____ to _____.

4" to 6"

Asphalt Paving Profile Elements (Top to Bottom)

Wearing Course

Tack Coat

Base Course

Prime Coat

Aggregate Base

Compacted Subgrade

Types of retaining wall failures?




Bearing Capacity (same as Settling)

5 Common Wood Fasteners for Decks

Column Base

Post Cap

Strap Hanger

Strap Tie (T and L)

Tie Plate

Nail with a coating that melts when driven to lubricate the nail and then hardens to hold.

Resin Coated

Nail coating with moderate rust protecting, not recommended for exterior use.

Zinc Platted

Nail with good corrosion resistance.

Galvanized Steel

Nail with high corrosion resistance. Expensive

Stainless Steel

Primary Components of Pergola





Brick Headers in Walls do what?

Add Stuctural Integrity

Create Aesthetic Patterning

Layers of a green roof - bottom to top?

Roof of Building



Protection Board

Root Barrier


Filter Membrane

Growing Medium