• Shuffle
Toggle On
Toggle Off
• Alphabetize
Toggle On
Toggle Off
• Front First
Toggle On
Toggle Off
• Both Sides
Toggle On
Toggle Off
• Read
Toggle On
Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

### How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

Play button

Play button

Progress

1/248

Click to flip

### 248 Cards in this Set

• Front
• Back
 Topographical points where a valley crosses at a ridge line. Saddle Existing contours are shown with ________. Dashed Lines Proposed contours are shown with _________. Solid Lines Slope Formula S=RI/RURI= (S)(RU)Ru=RI/S Slope Expressions for 1% Slope 1%1/1000.01100:1 Slope Expression for 2% Slope 2%1/500.0250:1 Slope Expression for 3% Slope 3%1/330.0333:1 Slope Expression for 5% Slope 5%1/200.0520:1 Slope Expression for 8.33% Slope 8.33%1/120.083312:1 Spot elevations for hardscape should be calculated to within ________ ft? 0.01 Spot elevations for softscape should be calculated to within ________ ft? 0.1 Existing spot elevations are inclosed in _________, proposed spot elevations are not. Parentheses _____ % is the minimum for draining water across very smooth and rigid materials such as storm drains, gutters and concrete slabs. 1/2% ______ % is a workable minimum for shedding surface water across paving materials. 1% _____ % is the generally recommended gradient for most any surface. 2% _____ % is the gradient at which slopes become obvious to the human eye. 3% ______ % is the maximum slope allowed for ADA without a ramp. 5% ______ % is the maximum longitudinal gradient allowed on ramps. 8.33% _____ % is acceptable for pathways that do not have to meet ADA code. 10% ______ % is the maximum gradient for lawns or hillsides that require machine access. 33% ____ % is the maximum gradient for cut fill slopes. 50% A ________ provides a transition between two sloped roadways, allowing a vehicle to negotiate the elevation rate change at a gradual rate rather than a sharp cut. vertical curve Generally speaking the finish floor elevation should be ________ above the surrounding finish grade. 6" Typically, the side of a swale should be no steeper than _______ and the most common longitudinal slope for a swale is _______. 3:12% Swales should be a minimum of ______ deep. 6" In the US rainfall is generally measured in ______. CFS (Cubic Feet per Second) A cubic foot contains _________ gallons of water? 7.5 gallons Rational Method for measuring runoff. Q=CIA What do the letter in Q=CIA stand for? Q =Peak Discharge in CFSC = Composite Runoff Coefficient for the watershedI = Rainfall Intensity in inches per hourA = Area of watershed in acres _________ square feet in one acre? 43,560 The time in minute that it takes a drop of water to travel from the hydrologically most distant point in a watershed to the outlet. Used to calculate the I value in Q=CIA. Time of Concentration (Tc) Equation used to calculate swale, channel, and gutter capacity and pipe sizing. Manning's Equation Graph used to calculate pipe sizes. Nomograph _______ is measured from the top of pipe to finish grade? Cover The _________ of a pipe is the lowest elevation inside of a pipe? Invert Occurs whenever the water level immediately downstream of a pipe outlet rises above the downstream invert of the pipe. Surcharge Minimum cover on any drain pipe is _________? 12" To reduce clogging, pipe sizes should never be _______ in the downstream direction. Reduced What are the 5 basic types of foundations? 1. Slab on Grade2. Pier and Grade Beam3. Spread or Strip Footing with Crawl Space4. Spread Footing with Basement5. Pole Foundations ________ is the minimum elevation difference between finish grade and any wooden part of the structure. 6" When determining FF elevations based on boring information it is often useful to create a ________ which includes _________. A MatrixThe names of each bore locationExisting Grade ElevationBedrock ElevationFinish Floor Elevation Guardrails are required when there is a _______ drop or greater within _______ of a path, parking lot or driveway. 2.5' (30")3' (36") Opening in guardrails cannot be large enough for a _________ ball to pass through the opening. 4" At least ________% of public entrances must be ADA compliant. 50% Minimum clear width for an ADA path? 3' (36") Maximum rise at a door threshold? 1/2" Minimum width of curb ramp (exclusive of flared sides). 3' (36") Landing depth at top of curb ramp? 4' (48") Max slope of flared sides of curb ramps? 1:10 (0.1 or 10%) Ramp landings are required for every _______ of vertical gain? 2.5' (30") Ramp landings are required for every ______ of horizontal change? 30' On ramps, a change in direction requires a ______? Landing Ramp landing shall be a minimum of ________ clear? 5' If a ramp has a rise greater than ______ or a run greater than _______ a _______ is required. 6"6'Handrail All handrails shall have a circular cross section with an outside diameter of at least _______ and no greater than _______. 1 1/4"2" What is the maximum and minimum riser height on stairs? 7"4" What is the minimum tread depth? 11" Tread shall have a wash slope of _______. 2% Stair nosing shall have an angle not less than ________? 60 degrees Stair nosing shall not project more than _______? 1 1/2" Steps over ________ shall have handrails on both sides of the stairway. 42" Top of handrail gripping shall be between ______ and ______. 34" - 38" On exterior stairs all tread are to have a ________. Warning Strip (2"-4") Water loving plants are called? Hydrophilic Plants Complete saturated soils with no oxygen in the soil for a period of time. Hydric Soils Three aspects of wetlands mitigation that will insure a successful project. 1. Monitoring and Maintenance Plan2. Contingency Plan3. A guarantee that the work will be performed as planned and approved. Common types of sedimentation controls include... 1. Silt Ponds and Basins2. Sediment Traps3. Silt Fences4. Hay Bales Common erosion control measures.... 1. Vegetated Swales2. Jute Netting3. Mattion4. Deep Rooting Plants on Steep Slopes5. Channel Lining or Armoring6. Biotechnical Stabilization Methods ________ offers no volume control, peak discharge control only. Relatively simple. Detention Basin ________ offers both volume and peak discharge control. Must attempt to get water to infiltrate the ground. Retention Basin A smaller pond located above larger primary pond whose purpose is to allow sediment to settle out of the water before entering the primary pond. Sediment Forebay _______ is a sustainable stormwater management strategy emphasizing a holistic approach to site design and overall sustainable design. Low Impact Design (LID) Two primary goals of LID? 1. Minimize the generation of stormwater runoff2. Treat pollutant loads where they are generated ______ is the process of soil being displaced. Erosion _______ is the product of erosion. Sediment Sediment and Erosion Control Plans typically include these three things: 1. Narrative2. Maps and Plans3. Construction Sequence Sediment control plans consist of two parts: 1. A filter2. A storage area Three types of construction documents: 1. Comprehensive Construction Documents2. Design Control Drawings3. Annotated Plans and Typical Details Building on portion of the project at a time. Phasing Building an entire project at one time with careful attention paid to the order in which work is done so as to minimize conflicts between trades. Sequencing Four types of technical specifications: 1. Descriptive 2. Performance3. Proprietary4. Reference Specifications that states in thorough detail the materials required and the methods and standards of workmanship to be used to install a specific item. Descriptive Specification- also called "Prescriptive" or "Materials and Workmanship" or " Design" Specifications Specifications used when the LA desires the Contractor to match an existing condition. Also may be used when the appearance of the specified item is not an issue so long as certain criteria are met. Performance Specification Specification that indicates a specific product made by one manufacturer. Proprietary Specification Specifications that are based on standards which have been established for some materials, installation techniques or testing procedures. Reference Specification Surveying that accounts for the curvature of the earth - high degree of accuarcy. Geodetic Surveying Survey that assume the earth is flat - used for most site work and subdivision of land. Plane Surveying These systems, of which each state has it's own point of origin, act as the official horizontal controls for all survey work and construction in the US. State Plan Coordinate System A fixed point on the ground who's location and relative elevation is know. Benchmark Series of connected lines, as in property lines. Traverse Horizontal angel relative to true north or south. Bearings Level plane to which elevations are referenced. Datum Dimensioning technique requiring the highest level of accuracy - to 1/1000th of a foot or less. Used for right of way, easement, property lines and building locations. Fixed Construction Dimensioning technique covering most hardscape and structural elements - to 1/8th or 1/100th of a foot. Semi-Fixed Construction Dimensioning technique that does not require a high degree of accuracy and may be subject to adjustment based on field observation. Adjustable Elements Layout system used for linear elements such as roads. Points on the baseline describe the location from the point of beginning. Stationing SystemPOB = 0+00 System where the direction and length of a line are based on its orientation to true north. Never exceed 90 degrees. Bearing and Distance Angular directions measured clockwise from true north and run from 0º to 360º Azimuths Equation used to calculate the hypotenuse of a triangle. Pythagorean TheoremA (squared) + B (squared) = C (squared) Dimensioning system where the site is laid out on a grid and each element on the site is laid out by giving the coordinates of two of more points on the element. Highly accurate and commonly used by civil engineers Grid Coordinate Dimensioning System Point at which a curves tangents intersect. Point of Intersection (P.I.) Point at which a curve leaves a tangent line. Point of Curvature (P.C.) Point at which a curve intersects with tangent. Point of Tangent (P.T.) Beginning of Layout Point of Beginning (P.B.) A straight line between the Point of Tangency (P.T.) and Point of Curvature (P.C.) Chord Septic System Elements (in order) 1. Tight line from house2. Septic Tank3. Tight line4. Diversion Valve5. Perforated pipe 1' of head = ________ psi .433 .433 psi is lost or gained with each _____ in elevation foot 1.0 psi = _______ of head 2.31' A certain amount of ______ is lost as water moves through each element in an irrigation system. Pressure The greatest amount of pressure is lost at the _____ in an irrigation system. Backflow Preventer Basic Order of Elements in an Irrigation System 1. Water Meter2. Isolation Valve3. Backflow Preventer4. Pressure Regulation Valve (if needed)5. Quick Coupler6. Irrigation Laterals Reclaimed, Harvested or Grey Water is regulated on the ______ level. State Five types of specialty plans new to LARE Exam? 1. Signage and Wayfinding Plan2. Traffic Control Plan3. Emergency Access Plan4. Soil Boring Plan5. Site Infrastructure Plan (Utility Plan) A quantitative measurement of the light energy emitted from a source. Lumens Equal to one lumen per square meter. One Lux A quantitative measurement that considers the amount of light falling on a point. Footcandle Graphic and numeric representation of light levels produced by a given light fixture or lamp. Photometrics The amount of light reaching a surface. Incident Illumination Involves running heavy vehicles (water truck) over existing subgrade to identify soft spots. Proof Rolling Involves running heavy equipment over soil to increase its density. Compaction Aggregate graded select sizes which when combined, form a medium lacking voids. Dense Graded (well graded) Aggregate(Class II Cal Tran Ag.) Aggregate graded for a single size aggregate to allow for voids - jagged edges of particles interlock to form stable base. Open Graded Aggregate(Permeable Paving) Aggregate graded with a select size omitted. Gap Graded Aggregate (Some small, some large, medium sizes omitted) Stair tread equation. 2 x Riser + Tread = 26 +/- Min. riser? 4 inches Max riser? 7 inches Min tread? 11 inches The chemical inhibition of one plant (or other organism) by another, due to the release into the environment of substances acting as germination or growth inhibitors. Allelopathy A substance or material applied to a plant, as by spraying, to inhibit moisture loss during transplanting. Antidessicant The magnitude of a force exerted along the long axis of an object which will try to tear it apart. Tension A substances tendency to deform and then return to its original shape. Elasticity A substances tendency to to deform and not return to its original shape. Plasticity The most common test for concrete - used to determine the suitability of the mix before a pour. Slump Test Concrete test to determine the compressive strength of concrete. Cylinder Test Ideal temperature range for pouring concrete? 50 - 70 degrees Extreme ranges for pour concrete (extra care must be taken)? 40 - 100 degrees Rebar is measure in what increment? 1/8" Rebar number is determined by what? Diameter in terms of eighths of inches#3 = 3/8" In concrete, ______ are placed at 30' max intervals. When a _____ is present is prevents differential settlement. A ______ must be applied to one side of the _____ to permit horizontal movement. Expansion JointsSteel DowelSleeveSteel Dowel For concrete paving, ______ are used when construction is stopped for more than 30 mins. Cold Joint ________ is used for attached stone veneer panels to concrete wall. Z-anchor ______ is used when mounting to the surface of existing concrete. Expansion Bolt Generic term that applies to a bolt embedded in wet poured concrete. Anchor Bolt A type of anchor bolt with a bend that prevents pullout under extreme force? J Bolt or L Bolt Metal anchors used to attached masonry veneer to CMU block core. Cavity Wall Tie Dimensions for one board foot? 1 foot long x 1 foot wide x 1 inch thick Elements in a deck weight transfers through - top to bottom? Decking JoistBeamsPost FootingsSubgrade A beam is piece of wood laid _____ with its width in the _______ plane. HorizontallyVertical A wall higher than _____ ft requires calculations from a structural engineer. 4' Type of wall that is held in place by its own weight and has a battered face. Gravity Wall Most common retaining wall. The weight of the soil on the footing prevents overturning. Cantilever Wall Type of wall that used a buttress system and is typically designed by engineers? Counterfort Wall The horizontal pressure on a wall from the retained soil uphill? Surcharge Water pressure in retained soil? Hydrostatic Pressure Four common types of wall failures? OverturningSlidingCrushing (Buckling or Rupturing)Settling (Bearing Capacity) From retaining walls, rebar should always be at least ______ from the edge of concrete and placed on the side of ________. 2"Stress For wall, the bottom of the _______ should not be below the bottom of the footing? Subdrain Maximum fountain depth for safety? 17.5" Swimming pools need a ______ high fence for safety? 6' A wooden brace on a gate should run from ______ corner on the hinge to the ______ corner on the latch side? BottomTop A cable or turnbuckle brace on a gate should run from ______ corner on the hinge to the ______ corner on the latch side? Top Bottom Guardrails are required when there is a _______ vertical within _____ feet of the path of travel? 30"3' Minimum height of guardrail? 42" Typical table height? 30" Illumination level at building entry? 5 Foot-candles Illumination levels at park walkways? 0.5 Foot-candles Illumination levels at infrequently used building entrances? 1.0 Foot-candles Illumination levels at Class 1 football field? 100 Foot-candles 1 Lux is ______ times 1 Foot-candle? 10 The term efficacy used in lighting design refers to a lamps ______. Efficiency The Color Rendering index is used to rank lamp types according to their _____. Apparent color and color rendering. Lamp with high initial cost, good color rending and superior optics? Metal Halide Lamp with high initial cost, low long term cost and poor color rendition? Low Pressure Sodium Lamp Lamp generally not used for large scale lighting because of their poor efficacy and short lifespan? Incandescent Cubic Feet in a Cubic Yard? 27 Maximum desirable grade along a bike path? 7% In soil ph range. Acidity is ___ to ___. ____is neutral. ____ to ____ alkaline. 0-777-17 Bituminous concrete is manufactured from _____ and _____. Aggregate and Bitumens The white coating found on newly constructed brick work is? Efflorescence Concrete attains its desired strength at the end of _____ days. 28 3 types of coatings applied to nails used in exterior conditions? Aluminum Stainless SteelHot Dipped Galvanized The height of a retaining wall is measured from ______ to _____. Bottom of footing to top of wall In applications that poor soil conditions it is important to install a _________ between the subgrade and base course material . Seperation barrier (geotextile fabric) The best season for new planting is ______. Fall ________ involves the establishment of plant materials on hillsides and banks to control erosion and prevent excessive runoff. Bioengineering In ball and burlap plantings with a basket, twine and burlap, how should these materials be treated? Completely removed if possible What is the maximum depth to stockpile soils to prevent compaction under the soils own weight? 4 feet In the plant installation process the single most important factor in insuring long term viability is ________. The condition the plants arrive in from the nursery Construction detail sheet usually convey information through __________. Orthographic drawings In order to properly estimate how much water will be used or how much water use will be allowed on a site use the __________ calculation. Maximum applied water allowance For a project in a wet or freezing condition, what is the proper base product to use under the asphalt wearing course? Asphalt treated base The most economical staking method for a large-scale state highway construction project is _______. Global Positioning System (GPS) Unit Survey method used to locate critical elements on a site such as building corners, connection to utilities and other site amenities? Northing and Easting Preparation requirements for topsoil stripping and stockpiling would be found in what spec division? Division 31 For some aspects of a project, the contractor may be given latitude in deciding methods of construction. Prior to final acceptance and payment, these items should be provide to the LA, for approval, in the ________. As Built Drawings The standard for concrete are governed by the ______. American Society to Testing and Materials (ASTM) Design loads for decks are measured in ______. Pounds per Square Foot What unit is used to measure illumination on a surface in the US? Internationally? FootcandleLux When mixing irrigation heads of various radius sizes, the irrigation head nozzles must have matching ______. Precipitation Rates The relative compressive strength of a typical concrete sidewalk is directly related to the ratio of what two product? Cement and Aggregate What type of admixture is added to concrete to slow down the setting of concrete? Retardent In plane surveying, distances are most commonly measured with _________. A Foresight and Backsight The ability of soil to bind together under moderately dry conditions? Cohesion Test preformed on the subgrade before pouring of concrete to insure the subgrades suitability? The Proctor Test Method Type of surveying method typically used on small to medium sized landscape projects? Plane Surveying Mortar is composed of what elements? Sand, Cement and Water What is used bond wood together and can be used on dry, wet or treated wood, it is not effected by moisture? Construction Adhesive What compaction equipment best suited for aggregate products? Plate Compactor What compaction equipment is ideal for colloidal soils and used exclusively with cohesive soils? Sheep's Foot Roller When concrete is subject to roadway conditions, the primary criterion for selecting aggregate used in the concrete is ________. Hardness What is the best type of soil to specify as a structural fill material? Graded gravel (works as well and is cheaper that crushed aggregates) What should not be include in the construction of a rain garden due to is propensity to clog and compromise the system? Geotextile Fabric Vertical revetments, Breakwaters,Sloped revetments and Beach renourishment are all construction techniques to manage ________. Shoreline Erosion Installation of composite deck boards should provide for a gap or space betweenparallel boards of which dimension? 3/16" The type of contract in which the contractor's payment is based upon measurement ofwork completed is a __________. Unit Cost What is the major load bearing element in a wooden deck? Beam The type of joint used when pouring of concrete is stopped for more than 30 mins. Construction Joint Minimum width for a one way ramp? Two way ramp? 3'5' Trees on a planting plan should be drawn at ______ of their mature size. 2/3 A bundle of rods or sticks bound together for filling in marshy ground or other obstacles and for strengthening the sides of embankments, ditches, or trenches. Fascine What subgrade material is suitable for direct placement of a concrete slab? Loam Test to measure the compressive strength of concrete? Schmidt Hammer Test Seeding and straying is an effects erosion control method if construction site will be unused for ______ says or more. 30 A general rule for velocity of flow in pipes is not to exceed ______ or be less than _____. 15 ft per sec1 ft per sec The ideal flow velocity for pipes in between _____ and ______. 2 - 7 ft per sec In the US runoff is measure in _______. CFS (Cubic Feet per Second) One cubic foot of water contains ____ gallons. 7.5 ______ is a type of backflow preventer. Anti Syphon Valve Optimal operating pressure for spray and drip irrigation systems? Spray = 50 - 60 psiDrip = .35 psi In irrigation design spray for one head to reach ____ heads to insure full coverage. Adjacent Typical household lamp bulb. Cheap, inefficient and good optical control (warm tone). Incadescent Bulb with OK rendering - cheap and inefficient - difficult optical control - low installation cost (cool tone). Fluorescent Excellent color rendering - good optical control - long life - high installation cost. Metal Halide (commonly used on sport fields) Poor color rendering for blue/green - orange/yellow color - high installation cost - long life High Pressure Sodium (common street lamp) Standard exterior construction tolerances for horitzontal measurements is _______. 1/8" The _____ of a footing needs to be _____ minimum below the frost line. Bottom1" Installation of ag base is typically done in lifts of _____ to _____. 4" to 6" Asphalt Paving Profile Elements (Top to Bottom) Wearing CourseTack Coat Base CoursePrime CoatAggregate Base Compacted Subgrade Types of retaining wall failures? SlidingOverturningBucklingBearing Capacity (same as Settling) 5 Common Wood Fasteners for Decks Column Base Post CapStrap HangerStrap Tie (T and L)Tie Plate Nail with a coating that melts when driven to lubricate the nail and then hardens to hold. Resin Coated Nail coating with moderate rust protecting, not recommended for exterior use. Zinc Platted Nail with good corrosion resistance. Galvanized Steel Nail with high corrosion resistance. Expensive Stainless Steel Primary Components of Pergola Posts BeamsRaftersPurlins Brick Headers in Walls do what? Add Stuctural Integrity Create Aesthetic Patterning Layers of a green roof - bottom to top? Roof of Building Waterproofing Insulation Protection BoardRoot BarrierDrainageFilter MembraneGrowing Medium