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225 Cards in this Set

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ADA - Accessible Route

1. Max. Running slope 1:20 (5%)

2. Max. Cross slope 1:48 (2%)

3. Clear width 36" min. (48" at turns)

4. Less than 60" clear width need passing space at 200' intervals, min. 60" sq. or 48" T

ADA - Doors

1. Clear width 32" min.

2. Threshold of 1/2" max. (3/4" remodel)

3. Operable door/gate hardware

34"min.-48"max. above finish grade

ADA - Ramps

1. Running slope 1:12 (8.33%) Max.

2. Cross slope 1:48 (2%) Max.

3. Ramp runs 30" Max. rise

4. Greater than 6" rise requires handrails both sides

5. 36" clear width min. inside of handrails

6. Use least amount of slope and pair ramp with stairs for people where distance is more challenging

ADA - Ramp Landings

1. level landings (slope less than 1:48 (2%)) at

top and bottom of each ramp run

2. straight run - 60" long by width of ramp min.

3. turn - 60" sq. min.

ADA - Grates

1. Grate openings 1/2" max

2. Paver joints 1/2" max.

ADA - Stairs

1. All stairs in a flight shall have uniform riser height and tread depth

2. Risers 4" min. to 7" max., no open risers

3. Tread depth 11" min., 1:48 (2%) slop max.

4. Nosing

A. radius 1/2" max.

B. 30 degree back slope from vertical

C. 1 1/2" overhang riser max.

ADA - Ramp Edge Protection

1. Provide on each side of ramp runs and landings

2. Extend 12" min. beyond inside of handrail

3. Prevent passage of 4" sphere within 4" above

finish grade

ADA - Curb Ramps

1. 1:20 (5%) slope max. and counter slope max.

2. 1:10 (10%) slope max. side flairs

3. Clear width as wide as ramp (not counting flares) and 36" deep

4. Contained within cross walk (not flares), on radius 24" on each side within crosswalk

ADA - Handrails

1. Required both sides of ramp where 6" rise or greater

2. Must be continuous between ramp runs or stair flights

3. 34" min. to 38" max. above finish grade

4. 1 1/2" min. clearance between handrail and wall

5. Horizontal projections 1 1/2" below handrail

6. 1 1/4" min. to 2" max. diameter; 2 1/4" max. not circular dia.

7. Not required when less than two stair risers

ADA - Handrail Extensions

1. Ramps - extend 12" min. beyond top and bottom of ramp run and return to wall, landing surface or be cont.

2. Stairs - extend 12" min. beyond top of stair from first nosing; at bottom of stairs extend handrail at same height 1 full tread depth min. beyond last stair nosing

ADA - Parking Stalls

1. Car Stalls 96" (8') Wide Min.

2. Van Stalls 132" (11') Wide Min.

*Exc. van stalls 8' wide when adj. 8' wide

access aisle

3. Number of accessible parking stalls:

- 1to100 stalls (1 ADA stall per 25 stalls)

- 100 to 200 stalls (1 ADA stall per 50)

- 200 to 500 stalls (1 ADA stall per 100)

- 500 stalls + (2% of total stalls ADA)

- 1/8 of ADA stalls to be van accessible. 1-400 stalls only 1 van accessible, over 400 triggers 2 van accessible stalls

ADA - Parking Access Aisle

1. 60" (5') wide min.; 96" (8') wide common van

2. 1:48 (2%) slope max.

3. Full length of parking stall

4. Must be striped/signed

5. May be shared

6. Connection from accessible parking stalls to accessible route to accessible building entrance

7. Van wheelchair lifts on passanger side

ADA - Passenger Loading Zone

1. 96" (8') wide min.

2. 20' long min.

3. Access aisle 60" (5') clear required adj. to curb full length

Carrying Capacity of Site

what can be supported indefinitely upon the available resources and services of that ecosystem without damage to resource

Tennis Court/Volleyball/Basketball Orientation

Long Axis N/S

Football/ soccer orientation

Long Axis N/S

Baseball Orientation

Home plate to second base line E/NE

Complete Streets

1. Considers all users in design of streets

2. Benefits:

- Produces safer streets

- Increases pedestrian and bicycle traffic

- Lowers vehicle speeds

Heat Island Effect

1. Increased temps 10-15 deg. urban vs. rural

2. Respiratory issues


1. Locate near walking surfaces to minimize chance of accidental falls

2. Required when walking surface (sdwlk., parking lot, etc.) less than 3' away from a difference in elevation of greater than 2.5'

3. 42" min. height

4. Must not allow passage of 4" dia. sphere

Active Recreation Setback

30' min. clear zone around active recreation (soccer, baseball, etc.) from ped/veh. circulation. - do not allow circulation within except for direct access

Water (lake, river, stream) Development Buffer

50' setback min.

Wetland Development Setback


Floodplain Development

- Do not locate structures or appurtenances

- Possibly recreation areas (parks/trails)

Vehicular Circulation Property Line Setbacks

- 15' min. setback from ROW

- 10' min. from other property lines

- parking lots, drive aisles (not driveways for access)

Building Property Line Setbacks

- 25' min. from Street ROW

- 15' min. from all other property lines

Buffer Zones between incompatible land uses

- 25' min. on each side of property line to buffer residential from commercial/industrial uses

- Don't locate the following (parking, structures, roads, active recreation)


- must be directly aligned

- or - 150' min. from another street (curb to curb)


- must be directly aligned

- or - 75' min. from another street or driveway


- cross slope of road from outside to inside edge

- used on higher speed roads to counteract centrifugal force and provide safe coefficient of friction between tires and road

Design Speed

Maximum safe speed road has been designed to meet for safe operation of vehicle under favorable conditions

Strategies to Reduce Ped/Veh. Conflicts

- Minimize pedestrian exposure

-- buffer zone btwn. sidewalk and traffic

-- min. time & distance in roadway - medians

-- provide smallest turning radii req.

- Eliminate long, straight, wide, level roads

- Provide traffic calming devices

Traffic Calming Devices

- used to reduce speed and increase driver awareness of road and peds

- Changes in:

-- materials - color, pattern, texture

-- roadway widths

- - roadway alignment

-- grades

Traffic Calming Types

- Woonerf - park like, shared space

- Choker - intersectin bump out

- Roundabout

- Chicane - series of alt. curb ext. create S shaped

- Closures of street

Stacking Spaces (off-street)

- Min. 18' L x 11' W

- Allow for passing stacked vehicles

- 6 stacked spaces for 1 drive-up window add 2 per each additional window

- 2 stacked spaces for unattended drop box


- max. length 1,000-1,500' (800' LARE)

- Advantages:

-- less pavement per housing unit

-- more open space/less impervious area

-- privacy/security

-- Absence of through traffic

-- Sense of neighborhood

- Disadvantages:

-- access for larger veh.

Design Vehicle

- vehicle used in determining design standards

EX) - snow plow in cold climates

EX) - large truck in industrial park

EX) - school bus in residential

- design for infrequent vehicles (fire) should be accomodated but stablized turf shoulder, etc.

Stopping Sight Distance

- Calculation based on length of time from driver recognizing object in road and being able to come to complete stop at design speed of roadway

- Drivers eye 3'-9" above road

- Object 6" high

- based on weight, grade and coefficient of friction

Minimum Design Speed Based Upon

- Average Annual Daily Traffic (AADT)

- Average Daily Traffic (ADT)

- Design Hourly Volume DHV

Sight Triangle

- clear visibilty at intersections, do not place obstructions within clear sight window

- 2.5'-8.5' above grade clear visibility

- do not place trees, buildings, walls, etc.

- 45 min. from curb (LARE Ref. Manual)

- Drivers eye height 3'-6" above grade

Horizontal Alignment

- Arc connecting two tangents used when road moves to transition movement; no compound curves

- Centerline of roadway typically used

Point of Curvature (PC)

- where curve starts in horiz. alignment

Point of Tangency (PT)

- where curve ends in horiz. alignment

Arc Length (L)

- length of curve between PC & PT in horiz. alignment

Point of Intersection (PI)

- where both tangents intersect in horizontal align.

Vertical Alignment

- Consists of straight lines connected by portions of parabolas


Beginning of Vertical Curve


End of Vertical Curve


Point of Vertical Curve Intersection

Max. Vehicular Height/ Bridge Vertical Clearance

- Most states 13'-6"

Vehicular Turning Radii

- Car - 20'

- Truck - 23'

- Bus - 54'

- Trash/Snow Removal - 32'

- Firetruck - 48'

- Semitrailer - 50'

-- Use 20' radius res. intersection

-- Use 30' commercial intersection

-- Use 15' radius in parking lot

Vehicular Dimensions

- Car - 16' L x 6' W

- Truck - 18' L x 6'-6" W

- Bus - 40' L x 9' W

- Trash/Snow Removal - 28' L x 8' W

- Firetruck - 32' L x 8' W

- Semitrailer - 55' L x 8' W

90 Degree Parking

- most efficient and economical in parking per sf

- 9x18 common

- 24' drive aisle two-way

- 18' drive aisle one-way

- disadv. that it requires most space for double bay of parking

60 Degree Parking

- best for high turnover parking spaces

- requires more pavement than 90 deg.

45 Degree Parking

- one-way only. two-way inefficient b/c significantly less spaces than perp. with same cross section

30 Degree Parking

- least efficient parking, most pavement per vehicle

Sustainable Parking Lot Design

- Minimize impervious surface and maintain predevelopment rate of infiltration through:

1. Reduce parking lot size

2. Require smaller spaces

3. Provide spillover parking with pervious surface

Parking Lot Best Practices

- Arrange rows perpendicular to bldg. to min. ped crossing drive aisles

- Locate parking close to building entry (100' disabled)

- Provide parking on both sides of aisle for max. efficiancy

- Avoid dead end parking

- Do not require backing into ROW

Parking Lot Ingress/Egress

- Planting buffer 15' min.

- 20' min. for stacking 1 car

- 100' min. for commercial lot with over 200 stalls for 5 car stacking

- Set back signage 50' for visibility

Vehicular Stacking at Left Turn Lane

- 65' min (45' for truck/bus + 1 car)

Loading Docks

- Floor typically 4'-2"

- Semi - 55' L x 8' W x 13'-6" T

Road Classification Hierarchy

1. Local Street (Dean Ave.)

2. Collector Street (Monona Dr.)

3. Arterial (Stoughton Rd.)

4. Freeway (US 12/18)

Bike Paths

- bike path 10-12' wide; bike lane 5-6' wide

- 2-3% grade perferred, 2% cross slope for drainage

- 10% max grade desired, up to 15% for short distances, 5%+ requires standing to peddle, 8%+ requires most to dismount and walk

- provide rest areas on paths 2-3 miles, 1 mile for walkers

- signage 3' min. horizontal offset, 7' vertical clearance

Bicycle/Vehicular Conflict at Intersections

- Failure to yield

- bikes turning left across traffic

- bikes travelling straight across intersection while vehicles turning right

Trees as Windbreak

- overhanging path can reduce rainfall by 20-40%

- Reduce windspeeds 50% for distance 20 times their height downwind

Retention Basin

-always wet, overflow spillway at higher elev.

-some treatment of sediments/pollutants - settling in forebay

-some maintenance of forebay

Detention Basin

-dry between stormevents, overflow at lower elevation

-limited treatment only temp. relief rather than sending runoff to pipes carrying other runoff

-situate upstream in watershed

Rain Gardens

-excellent pollutant and sediment removal

-6" ponding max. with 3 day drain down


-best for first flush removals

-92% of total suspended solids removed

Low Impact Design

- water is considered a resource, not a problem

- reduce the volume of runoff

- decentralize the flow of runoff

- minimize disturbed area, work with existing drainage patterns, maximize retention of native plant communities

Low Impact Design Strategies


-Bioretention cells/rain gardens

-Filter Strips - capture flow off large impervious areas

-Detention Ponds


-Green Roofs

-Infiltration structures

-Native plants

Benefits of Low Impact Design

- Increased infiltration and recharg

- Decreased pollutant loads

- Increased biodiversity

- Reduction in heat island effects from development

- Improved air quality


- use of plants native to area climate and soil conditions

- plants ability to thrive naturally with minimal care and ammendments (water, fertilizer, pesticides)

Watershed Components

- stream channel

- floodplain

- upland areas

Slope Erodability

High - slopes over 16%

Moderate - slopes 8% to 16%

Low - slopes 0% to 8%

Permanent stabilizatin of site

established vegetation or paving

Temporary stabilization of site

need to monitor continuously until site established


- erosion control mat

- stabilized construction entrance

- silt fence

- mulch and seed

- sediment basin (5 ac+)

- sediment trap (smaller site)


- provides temporary natural storage for runoff

- serves as recharge areas for acquifers

- provides important natural habitats for animals and plants

- part of every watershed found alongside streams, rivers and lakes


-defined by hydric soils (anaerobic conditions in upper part)

- hydrophytic vegetation

Benefits of Wetlands

- Erosion control

- Flood control

- Groundwater supply recharge

- Natural filter

- Wildlife Habitat

Wetland Banking

- Consolidates the creation of smaller wetlands

- Transfers the responsibility of creating wetlands from developer to others

- Provides incentives for others to restore wetlands

Latitude & Longitude

- Latitude runs E/W; 0 deg at equator, 90 deg. at poles

- Longitude runs N/S; 0 deg at prime meridian, 180 deg east and 180 deg west

- Expressed Degrees, Minutes (60), Seconds (60)

- Ex, US capital is 38 deg 53'23" N of equator and 77 deg 00'27" W of prime meridian


-horizontal angle measured N to E or N to W, S to E or S to W

-Cannot be greater than 90 deg

-Expressed Degrees, Minutes, Seconds

-Notes direction

-Ex, N 20 deg 15'30" E

Base Line

N/S or E/W bearing to high spots not always true Lat/Long b/c of meshing township lines at natura boundaries

Bench Mark

brass disk with lat/long & elev. above sea level


-Geographic coordinate for a point

-Easting = eastward measured distance from x

-Northing - northward measured distance from y

-township descriptions started from northings and eastings

Point of Beginning

-traverse (northing/easting and length of lines to define boundary back to POB)

-all critical survey elements relate back to

-Ex survey marker/monument, center of roadway, cornder of building, corner of property lines


-36 sq. miles of land

-numbering starts at 1 in NE corner and runs W to E in first row and E to W in second Row and alternates rows so 36 is in the SE corner

-each number represents 1 sq. mile of land = section


- 1 sq. mile of land that is part of a township

- 640 acres


-Vertical row of townships numbered east and west from baseline

1 mile

5,280 linear feet

Cadastral Survey

-public land survey system

-ignores curvature of earth (plane survey)

-use on small projects

Geodetic Survey

-use on large planning projects

-takes into account curvature

Boundary Survey

-true property corners and lines located

-used for building permits

Metes and Bounds Survey

-describes shapes and boundaries of land


-rotation angle to true north


-used to check for accuracy during leveling once equipment setup

Orthographic Drawings

-2D drawings in plan,elevation, section

-drawn to scale

Paraline Drawings

-all lines drawn parallel

-Isometric (3D) all planes equal emphasis

-Oblique favors 1 face, others distorted


-set of 3 or more 3D views of object

Ideal Function Diagram

-non-site related examines relationships between proposed functions and spaces

Site Related Function Diagram

-application of ideal function diagram to known site conditions and true size/scale of elements

Most important source of local information

zoning and ordinances


-guidance of how development must be done

-setbacks, road width, lot sizes, parking config, buffers/screening, etc.

-enforceable and can't be dismissed without formal hearing and variance


-local authority has ability to waive or modify

-street design, lighting, landscaping

Historical Features

-Most are regulated/protected materials and sites

-sources: historical societies, govt. records, USGS maps

Site Selection - Slopes

- roads should parallel contours

- balance cut/fill

- mimic natural site conditions/terrain/drainage

- maintain ex. vegetation

- slopes greater than 8% require excessive excavation and access challenges

Site Selection - Aspect

- direction a sloped site faces affects temperatures

- south facing slopes collect more heat and contribute to energy savings

Site Selection - Drainage

- avoid seasonal creeks/gullies, floodplains,etc.

- building on slope helps with artificial drainage (use HPS to collect and divert flows from upslope)

- high water table means drainage problems

Site Selection - Subsurface Geology

- need geotech. report to understand depth of bedrock, water table, soil character, bearing capacity and bulking factor

Site Selection - Microclimate

- solar access - windows on south help heating in winter if deciduous used

- shade - trees on SW and W provide shade in summer and reduce cooling costs

- Wind - NW winter, SE summer breeze

- Frost - moves downhill and stops at raises in grade, buildings, etc. allow for circulation

Suitability Analysis

- determine appropriateness of land for specified use

- most suitable analysis - individually assess site elements and overlay method

Slope Steepness Suitability

- gradient of single color representing slope steepness

- darker color = steeper

- Ex) 0-1% too flat for drainage most uses

- 1-5% ideal for most uses min. cut/fill

- 8%+ more difficult should probably be avoided

Fundamental Use Diagram

- Illustrates general project components while taking into consideration shapes, sizes and relationships

Project Program Includes

--Goals - general statement of intent

--Objectives - action oriented statement in support of goal acheivement

--Elements to include

--Requirements design must fulfill

Project Program

-summary of site inventory/analysis and client interview

-Functions as checklist to compare design proposal against

-Include estimating to help determine financing and return on investment

Most Project Programs Address

-Population to be accommodated at site

-Package of activities or elements to be included

-Type and level of performance expected from design

-Essential patterns or arrangements to include

Relating Building to Site

-Southern aspect with elongated E/W axis

-Parallel contours to min. cut/fill

-Provide swale on uphill side of building to capture uphill runoff and divert around

-Steeper sites become more expensive to build b/c const. access and grading

-locate first floor 6" above outside ground elev.

Max. slope before erosion


Valley/Swale on plan

Contours point uphill toward higher numbered contour lines

Ridge on plan

Contours point downhill toward lower numbered contour lines

Slope Suitability to development

-<1% too flat - poor drainage, sports/rec/conservation ok

-1-5% - ideal for most land uses min. grading, access challenges

-5-10% - suitable for most uses

-10-15% - more expensive but views/drainage

->15% - too steep

Concave Slope

-contours spaced further away at bottom (toe) of slope and closer at top (crest)

-Ex. ampitheater

Convex Slope

contours spaced closer at bottom (toe) of slope and further away at top (crest)

Ridge Landform

-end or terminal best panoramic views - building

-locate circulation and buildings on top of ridge or parallel to min cut/fill

Most desirable slope aspect for development


--protection from winter wind

--takes advantage of cooling offerred by summer breeze

--exposure to winter sun

--some protection from hot afternoon sun

Horizon Line

Defines limits of space (enclosure)

Cone of Vision

-60 degrees total

-40 degress above eye level; 20 deg. below eye

-sense of enclosure occurs when 45 degrees filled by landform

To direct view

-view follow line of least resistance to open space

-to frame on focal point, build up landform or use vegetation on sides to block distraction

-place object on high point

To hide view

-crest of slope can hide object/view at toe of slope (roads, haha fence) to allow continuous pastoral scenes

-build up landform (berm) to screen

Military Crest

-point near top of slope from which entire slope below can be seen

-desirable building location b/c of views to foreground and distance and blends building into surroundings (protects from wind)

Frost Heave

- water freezes in soil foundation to depth of frost line and can heave surface

-can destroy surface construction

-Need to control water movement under pavement subject to freezing

Frost Depth

-depth to which water freezes in soil

-impacts foundations and roadway bases

Angle of Repose

-steepest angle when material on verge of sliding off

-varies by soil type


-ability of soils to stick together

-clay soils are cohesive

-sandy soils are not cohesive

Shear Resistance

-resistance of soil to movement (by friction of soil particles) when pressure or impact applied

-higher shear resistance requires more compactive force

-clay has high shear resistance

-sand has low shear resistance

Soil Strength

-soils ability to resist deformation

-function of friction and cohesion

-sand dunes can stand angle of repose b/c friction


-dense layer of soil impedes drainage and growth of plants

-may affect foundations if bearing capacity not sufficient have to break through it

Load Bearing Capacity

-max. load can carry without yielding or displacement

-ex. 6 tons point load needs soil w/1 ton per sq. foot with 6 sq. foot footing

Bulk Density

-weight per volume of any unit of soil

-higher bulk density = greater support for foundations

-lower bulk density = doesnt support foundation

Safe Bearing Capacity

-max. intensity of loading a soil will cary without shear failure

-soil must have capacity to support weight of material dead load + live load (static or dynamic)

Differential Settlement

-structural failure due to unequal settlement

-portion of building on firm stratum and other on compressible stratum

Soil Compaction

-method of increasing density and load bearing capacity of soil by reducing pore space

-Prevents settlement of soil and frost damage

-Reduces water seepage, swelling and contraction

Shear Strength Test

-measure of frictional resistance and cohesion of soil

-turning vane in soil till failur

Sieve Analysis

-measures grain size characteristics of soil

-higher sieve number = smaller grain size

-used mostly on clay or silty soil b/c expand and shrink due to moisture content

Proctor Test

-measures % compaction density by testing moisture effects

Soil pH

-0(acidic) to 14 (basic)

-7 is neutral

-optimum is 6-7.5 pH

-to raise pH add lime

-to lower pH add sulfur

Erodability of Soils

-High erodability = silty soils b/c don't stick together when moist and transport easily by runoff

-moderate erodability = loamy and clay soils b/c cohesion

Capillarity of Soil

-enables soil to retain and move water

-small pore size = higher capillary rise

-clay has greater ability to hold and retain water b/c of micropore size


-High porosity but low permeability

-May settle when loaded with a foundation but has low compressibility and high strength

Permeability of Soils

-rate of water move freely drain through soil

-function of pore space

High - Sand/gravel

Moderate - Silt

Low - Clay

Soil Gradation

-Well graded - particles of wide range of sizes that will compact well

-poorly graded - uniform particle sizes and will not compact well (sand) and will have better drainage

Hydric Soil

-formed under saturated conditions

-produces anaerobic conditions in upper crust

Soil Triangle - texture

-% of each soil separate (sand, clay, silt)

- Loam is roughly equal concentrations of each and ideal for plants (good nutrients, retains water but free draining)

Soil Horizon

-distinct layer of soil

- O horizon - organic matter

- A horizon - topsoil/top layer

-B Horizion - subsoil

- C Horizon - parent material, little affect from weathering

- R Horizon - Bedrock

---most soils 3-4 layers

---identified by physical characteristics (color and texture)

Littoral Drift

transport of non-cohesive sediments by wave action

Hydrological soil groups (NRCS)

-ranking of runoff potential

Group A (lowest runoff; sand) through Group D (highest runoff; clay)

Soil Orders

-Oxisols - weathered soils of tropics

-Aridsols - arid environments not for ag. but range

-Utisols - leached soils, SE US

-Mollisols - grassland soils/prairies, most productive

-Alfisols - very productive 1/5 world pop.

-Inceptisols - weakly developed horizons, mountains/forests


soil development in humid, cold to temperate regions where vegetation produces acidic humus

Soil Survey Includes


-Depth to bedrock

-Hydrologic character of soil

Unified Soil Classification System (USCS)

-describe texture and grain size of soil from larger to smaller:






Atterberg Limits

-variations caused by grain size

-test used to ensure soil has correct amount of shear strength

-Made up of measures:

--Liquid Limit

--Plastic Limit

--Plasticity Index

--Shrinkage Limit

Liquid Limit (LL)

-moisture content at which soil will flow and not retain it's shape

Plastic Limit (PL)

-moisture content at which soil deforms (crumbles when rolled)

Plasticity Index (PI)

-Difference between PL and LL

-PI over 15 = expansive soil

--High plasticity = clay

--Low plasticity = sand


-ability of soil to be deformed under pressure without cracking and maintain deformed shape after pressure released

-non-reversible due to applied force

Elasticity of Soil

-ability of soil to return to original shape after being deformed by a load

-can determine compatibility of soil


Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design

-key is community involvement/eyes on street

-Design must:

--make it hard for criminals to do work

--encourage other activities

--be accompanied by social and community

Denfensible Space Design

-Territory - distinctions between space (elev. change/wall)

-Access - control (fences/gates)

-Surveillance - seeing and being seen (porches, windows) foster community engagement


-elev. differance of 2.5' when closer than 3' to walk/path/drive

-42" height min.

-4" sphere

Active Recreation Setback

-30' min. free of obstructions (trees, buildings, parking) around active uses such as basketball, soccer, baseball, etc.)

-do not place primary circulation paths only direct access

Lighting Requirements of Site

-Often governed in local ordinances

-min. and avg. footcandle based on use at any point:

--building entry 5.0 fc

--parking lots 1.0 fc

--sidewalks 0.9 fc commercial/ 0.2 fc residential


-light source placed high up in trees

-good at entries/transition spaces

Social Seating

-provide privacy & quiet for conversations

-U or L shaped seating arrangements allow people to face each other and encourages social interaciton

Seating for Observation

-arrange near but not directly in area of major activity...edges

-place slightly higher so vantage over space

General Seating Considerations

-Place to side of major activity or circulation rather than directly in it

-Place seating against something (wall/vegetation) - shelter/prospect theory

-Provide variety of seating locations (sun and shade)

-Protect from winter winds

-ideal: NW winds blocked, southern exposure, shade from western sun

-back 15" above seat

General Signage Considerations

-universal symbols more important than text

-use light colors on dark background for highest visibility

-Keys to signage are readability and effective reading distance

Design for Elderly

-provide transition areas of light shade

-sensitive to microclimate - provide shade, reduce glare, provide breeze

-provide noise buffer where conversations

-provide ability to rest - benches

-high contrast dark/white

-use bright colors - red, orange, yellow

-vegetation 1' horiz. offset, 8' vert. clearance

-avoid wide open and undefined spaces -- confusing use hierarchy and edges wayfinding

-min. 54" sidewalk

Design for Playground

-variety of equipment for different ages, abilities and activities

-provide sun and shade areas

-provide passive and active play areas

-no direct access to street

-maintenance/routine inspections

Min. space between playground equipment

12' and no overlapping fall zones

Fall Zone

buffer around each piece of equipment that is free of obstacles

EX) slide has 6' fall zone on each side and ends

Play areas for small children

-benches for parents

-allow for strollers

-limit access for security

Play areas for children 5-12

-large turf or surfaced areas-need more room to play

Critical Height

-highest accessible portion of play equipment child can fall from

-max. height which a life threatening injury would not be expected

-head injury is largest concern, drives surfacing material selection

Playground surfacing

-ASTM F 1292 Standard Spec for Impact attenuation of surface systems under and around playground equipment

-ASTM F 1951 Surfacing Standard

Playground Surfacing Types

1. Unitary Materials - rubber or foam mats or poured in place

2. Loose Fill Materials - sand, mulch

3. NOT ACCEPTABLE - asphalt, packed dirt, turf

Unitary Playground Surfacing


1.Low maintenance

2.Low life cycle cost

3.Consistent performance - not moved, can't hide

4.accessible surface


1.high initial cost

Loose Fill Playground Surfacing


1. Easy to install

2. Low initial cost - readily available


1. higher life cycle cost

2. Higher maintenance - replenishment/moves

3. Not accessible


-distance a building can be located from property line or street right-of-way

-often min. and max. setback found in local zoning or building codes

- front/street, rear and side yard are common building setbacks

- may include setbacks for fences, garages, etc.


-Area of land set aside to transition between different land uses or protect environmentally sensitive areas

- Ex. greenway or greenbelt to buffer land uses and mitigate erosion, flooding, etc.

- some zoning requires setback between different land uses; ex. residential and commercial

Stream Buffer

1. Stream Zone - 25' min.; minimize encroachments such as footpaths or swales

2. Middle Zone - 50' min./100 year flood plain; contains seasonal wetlands and habitats

3. Out of Transition Zone - recreational/gardens/open space

**typ. 100' total width min. or 100 year flood plain

*importance to maintain predevelopment conditions of sheet flow, filtration, infiltration

Overlay Zoning

-aims to protect environmental resources or safeguard natural hazards

-adds boundary of resource/hazard to existing zoning to create additional restrictions

-provides additional buffer/limits development for: historic/cultural resources, steep slopes, floodplains, wetlands, watershed, habitat corridors, riparian zones, etc.

Zoning for noise control

- separates sensitive land uses (churches, schools, hospitals) from traffic and industrial areas

- design noise levels not to be exceeded in certain land uses

Berms for Noise Controls

-most effective location is closest to source of noise

-visually isolate source of noise from receiver

-make berm continuous

-length of berm same length or 2 times as long as distance from source of noise

-use plants of varying height and in multiple rows

Noise Walls

-used where not enough room for berm and plantings

-use coarse texture to absorb sound and reduce glare

-step wall but remain constant to provide interest and non enclosing

Development Setbacks in Environmentally Sensitive Areas

-50' setback from water body (lake, river, stream)

-100' setback from wetlands

Property Line Setbacks

1. Vehicular Circulation

-15' setback from street right-of-way

-10' setback from all other property lines

2. Buildings

-25' setback from street right-of-way

-15' setback from all other property lines

Buffer Zones Development

-25' buffer zone on each side of property line between residential and commercial/industrial use

-not permitted: structures, roads, parking, active rec.

Universal Parking Space Design

-all accessible stalls 11' wide with a 5' access aisle

Low Impact Development

-comprehensive land use planning with goal of maintaining pre-development hydrologic regime of watersheds

Smart Growth

-compactt and mixed development of areas of existing infrastructure

-foster distinct communities, sense of place

-preserve open space, enivronmental areas

-mix land uses

-compact building design

-walkable neighborhoods

-range of housing

-variety of transportation

Site Inventory Vs. Site Analysis

Inventory - data, who/what

Analysis - evaluation of data/existing condition

EX--inventory - southwest slope with view

EX--analysis - view toward valley should be enhanced, aspect needs shelter from summer sun

Urban Growth Boundary

-used in conjunction with smart growth to promote development in areas with existing infrastructure and de-emphasize greenfield development

Preservation Plans

-purchase of development rights, restrictive covenants and conservation easements

-protects land without purchasing it and owner gets to keep

-financial incentive to develop elsewhere where zoning encourages

-easements added to title and remain even if land sold

-agricultural districting/differential taxation - ag. land taxed as use value rather than development value - promotes/protects ag. use

Development Density/Intensity Control

-Lot coverage

-Open Space Ratio

-Height, Landscape, VOlume Ratio

-Building Volume Ration

-Floor Area Ratio

ex. .10 FAR in zoning means all floors of all buildings must be no more than 1/10 of parcel area

Trees in Fill

-placing soil restricts air and water in root zone

-used sands/gravles b/c larger pore space

Critical Root Zone (CRZ)

-do not grade or allow equipment within CRZ

-radius equal to dripline

Trees in Cut

-much more difficult to save b/c root disturbance

-Deep rooted trees ex. elms tolerate better b/c feeder roots deeper. Shallow (conifers) rooted harder to save

Trees as windbreaks or shade

-most effective when located closer to structure

-locate trees on western or southwestern side for shading at horizontal distance of 1/4 to 1/3 of trees mature height

Privacy Control Planting

*purpose is isolation, blocks all views and does not permit movement

1. Dense planting over 6.5' tall provides greatest sense of privacy

2. chest high plants provides partial privacy but total privacy while sitting

3. waist high plants provide no privacy

Screening Planting

*blocks only incompatible land uses or views no all views like privacy control

allows movement around and through

Trees and Microclimate

-place deciduous trees on W & SW sides of building to block hot afternoon summer sun but permit winter sun

-place evergreen trees on N & W sides of building to block winter winds (greatest protection 5-6x vertical height)


-takes time (years) use of plants to clean up site contamination through uptake in roots (phytoextraction) or decomposition of certain contaminants (phytodegradation)

-removal of heavy metals

-birch, willow, fescue, juniper, alfalfa


-use of microflora or fauna to decompose or stabilize the contamination


-practice of clustering plants with similar water requirements together in effort to conserve water used to irrigate and prevent over/underwatering through controlled zones

Toxic Plants

-consider site users (children, elderly, pets, disabled)

-There's alot of them! Yew, pointsetta, miseltoe, tulips, daffodils, Oaks, lilys, rhododendron, iris, wisteria

Landscape Slopes

-place water demanding plants at bottom, drought tolerant plants at top

-2:1 difficult to establish vegetation

-3:1 mowing very difficult

-4:1 mowing manageable (mowing around individual trees/beds should be avoided if possible)

Plant Problems - high temperatures

elongate stems to cool leaves

Plant Problems - cholorosis

leaves produce insufficient cholorphyl and yellow b/c of mineral defficiency (iron), poor drainage, compaction, and/or pollution injury

Plant Problems - fasciation

abnormality in plant stem elongation or fusion caused by herbicide damage, insects or physical injry

Plant Problems - overwatering

leaves wilted even though soil wet

leaves light green

roots discolored - root rot kills


fungal leaf and stem disease of shade trees characteristic brown spots

doesn't kill but can completly defoliate tree

Maple, Oaks and sycamores



life threatening b/c affect water movement

discoloration or wrinkeled spot on bark


sw injury occurs in late winter/early spring by heating up tissue and freezing at night killing it

Evergreen Tip Blight/Needlecast

-problematic in nurseries/windbreaks

-fungus spreads by humidity in dense plantings

-enhance air flow, remove infected material and use fungicides