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57 Cards in this Set

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Project Management Institute: established standardized procedures for managing projects across a broad spectrum of project types and industries

Project Management

As defined by the PMI: Application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements. Accomplished through application and integration of the project management process of initiating, planning, executing, monitoring, and controlling and closing


Project Manager: person responsible for the application and integration of the project management

Project Management Process Groups

1. Initiating Processes

2. Planning Processes

3. Executing Processes

4. Monitoring and Controlling Processes

5. Closing Processes

Six Goals of Project Management

1. To reach the end of the project

2. To reach the end on budget

3. To reach the end on time

4. To reach the end safely

5. To reach the end as error free as possible

6. To reach the end meeting everyone's expectations

Six Activities of Project Management

1. Defining

2. Planning

3. Directing

4. Coordinating

5. Monitoring

6. Learning

Five Basic Phases of Design Projects

1. Start

2. Planning

3. Design

4. Production

5. Closeout

Sole Proprietorship

Office that one person ventures. Overhead is low. Wears many different hats. Weak project management organizations.

Design Studio

Most common organizational structure for small -medium sized single-discipline design firms. Office and projects typically run by the owner or PA (Project Arch/Engineer/Planner). Project management usually shared by PA or owner.

Multiple Design Studio Organization

Similar to Design Studio, but allows more projects to run simultaneously with multiple design teams each with a designated studio leader.

Matrix Oranizations

Large single or multi-disciplinary design firm which employs a matrix structure allowing staff members to have different supervisors for different purposes. Contains Project Managers. Sometimes referred to as "strong project management" or "full project management" organizations.

What should be developed before beginning every project?

A Project Work Plan

The person responsible for developing the work plan

Project Manager

Two kinds of knowledge required to properly plan a project

1. An understanding of project management

2. The technical knowledge and experience that comes from actually doing the design work.

Six Objectives of the Project Work Plan

1. Definition of the project objectives

2. Identification of the project team

3. Breakdown of the project into task budgets

4. Development of the project schedule

5. Establishment of the project quality-control program

6. Identification of other project-specific procedures and standards

What is a Task and the three elements that define it

An essential activity or increment of work.

1. An objective (measurable outcome)

2. A duration (budgeted length of time)

3. A level of effort (number of hours)


The Measure of the potential threats and uncertainties that can affect a project

Strategies for Controlling Risk

1. Prevention: reduce number threats

2. Transference: make other party responsible

3. Mitigation: lessen impact of uncertainties

4. Contingency Planning: plan in advance

5. Assumption: identify potential threats

Risk Management Procedures

1. Accept only project types with which the firm has a proven and positive track record.

2. Work only for past clients where the relationship was successful and avoid working with new clients.

3. Use the same design team on all projects from past successful projects.

Five most common types of fee structures used in the contracting of design services

1. Lump Sum ( Fixed Price)

2. Time and Materials (T& M)

3. Time and Materials w/Maximum Not to Exceed

4. Cost Plus Fixed Fee

5. Cost Plus Fixed Fee w/ Guaranteed Maximum Price ( GMP)

Lump Sum (Fixed Price)

Fixed price given to perform all services. Payment is often based on percentage of job complete. Mainly used when project is well defined.

Time & Materials (T&M)

Paid for time and other direct costs (ODC). Hourly rates are negotiated. Used when it's almost impossible to determine scope.

Time and Materials with a Maximum-Not-To-Exceed

T&M with a maximum that can't be exceeded. Preferred by owners, not favorable for designers.

Cost Plus Fixed Fee

Client pays all costs (labor & materials). Profit (fixed fee) is added. Can benefit both owner and client, sometimes less beneficial for owner.

Cost Plus Fixed Fee with a Guaranteed Maximum Price (GMP)

Client pays all costs up to maximum fixed price. Profit (fixed fee) is added. Protects client from severe cost overruns.

Three Common Dispute Resolution Techniques

1. Partnering

2. Mediation

3. Arbitration


Series of facilitator-lead team-building sessions thought out the project, that include the owner, contractor and design professional. Intent is to define goals that are common to all parties, improve communication and eliminate "us-against-them" mentality.


A voluntary method of resolving disputes by which the parties agree to a resolution themselves. A third-party mediator, agreed by all parties, is selected to help come to a resolution. Usually not binding.


Opposing parties, generally with their attorneys, present their cases to one or more individuals empowered to render a decision. Can be binding or non-binding.

Two Cost Budgets a PM Must Control

1. Project Design Budget

2. Project Construction Budget

Client Project Design Budget

The maximum amount the client wants (hopes) to spend to for the design and preparation of the construction documents for the project

Client Project Construction Budget

The maximum amount the client wants (hopes) to spend to have the project built

Designing-To-Cost Approaches

1. Develop a realistic construction cost budget from the outset.

2. Break down the construction cost budget into a budgetary cost model.

3. Lead, manage, and monitor the development of the project so that the design reflects the cost model.

Budgetary Cost Model

A breakdown of the overall estimated construction cost into major building components, materials and systems. It is the baseline for which the design and selection of building materials and systems can be evaluated for their cost appropriateness.

Factors of Establishing a Budget for Design and Production

1. Understanding of the scope of work

2. Experience with past projects

3. Input from team members

4. Past experience with client

5. What the market will bear

Top-Down Budget

A design budget determined by others in the firm handed to the project manager. Typically from upper management or a business development staff member. PM's call this over the transom.

Bottom-Up Budget

Begins with budget numbers prepared by team members and finished with PM.

Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)

Provides work plan, accounting, feedback, and monitoring information that a project manager needs to run and manage the project.

Three Common Schedule Formats

1. Milestone List

2. Bar Chart (Gantt Chart)

3. CPM Schedule (Critical Path Method)

Milestone List Schedule

Scheduled list of due dates for critical or contract-defined significant activities. Listed chronologically. Simple to read and understand. Used for small projects.

Bar (Gantt) Chart Schedule

Conveys the necessary scheduling and milestone information. Easy to set up and understand. For small to medium sized projects.

Critical Path Method (CPM) Schedule

A process flow diagram superimposed on a timeline. Project tasks are laid out chronologically and in the proper order of execution. Sophisticated and complex schedule. Suitable for larger projects.

Major Milestone

Contractual milestones that are required by the agreement between the design professional and the owner

Minor Milestone

Additional milestones that the project manager uses to plan, execute, and monitor the work of the design team

Two Ways of Leveraging a Design Team

1. Harness the team and drive it forward

2. Unleash it, empower it allowing it to develop its own synergetic power

Which leveraging technique is more effective?

Unleashing the team, thus empowering the team to develop its own synergetic power.

The Harnessed Design Team

Only as strong as the sum of their members.

The Empowered Design Team

Stronger than the sum of its individual members, creates it's own synergy. Synergetic teams are the result of a carefully planned working environment.

Six important team-building objectives that The Empowered Design Team accomplishes

1. Informs

2. Leads

3. Coaches

4. Serves

5. Creates

6. Liberates

What type of decisions should be delegated from a PM?

Technical decisions, as long as they do not affect the projects overall scope of work, budget or schedule.

What is a technique used to gain team buy-in to the work plan?

Wall Chart

Wall Chart

A work-planning session that all key team members attend to build a schedule. Milestones are noted and tasks are arranged accordingly to determine the critical path method (CPM). Process employs pragmatic abduction, educated guessing, and experience.


The practice of using service providers -individuals, branch offices, or other companies- located outside the U.S. To produce some part of the project work product.

Two common strategies to attain early client buy-in

1. Program Validation

2. The Charrette Process

Program Validation

A study which evaluates the program document to determine if it is up-to-date and complete and addresses all factors that will bear on the design. It validates that the defined project is constructable within the clients budget.

The Charrette Process

An intense creative and time-constrained workshop during which the project manager and design team work in concert with the client to resolve program and design problems. Multiple work sessions and lasts multiple days.

Quality Control Goals

1. Meeting or exceeding client requirements and expectations

2. Preparing accurate documents (deliverables)

3. Finishing the design on time and on budget

4. Designing a project that can be built on time and on budget