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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Synchronic
Looks at language at a point in time without considering the historical context.
Diachronic
The study of language change occurring over a span of time
Covert Prestige
The status that speakers who choose not to adapt a standard dialect, get from a particular group within society.
Overt Prestige
The status that speakers get from using the most official and standard form of a dialect (RP and Standard English are considered the most prestigious.)
Prefixes
Added to the beginning of an existing word in order to create a new word with a different meaning.
Suffixes
Added to the end of an existing word.
Loan Word
Introduction of a word from one language to another, can be changed or remain the same as original spelling. E.G anglicised - chocolate from chocolat. Non-pundit from Hindi, now a popular term for commentator.
Eponym
The name of a person after whom something is named. E.G. Sandwich, Braille.
Propriety Names
The name given to a product by one organisation becomes the commonly used name for the product. E.G. Tampax, Hoover, Walkman.
Acronym
A lexicalised word made up from initial letters. E.G. RADAR.
Initialism
A word made up from initial letters pronouncing each one. E.G. CD, DVD
Clipping
A new word produced by shortening an existing one. E.G. Edit (from editor.)
Affixation (Prefixes & Suffixes)
The addition of bound morphemes to an existing word. E.G. Affixes are sometimes linked to contemporary tastes.
Conversion
A word changes it's word class without adding a suffix. E.G. Text (noun and verb)
Compound
The combining of separate words to create a new word, sometimes using a hyphen to link them. E.G. Man flu, size zero, Carbon footprint.
Back formation
The removal of an imagined affix from an existing word. E.G. Editor became edit.
Blend
Two words fusing together to make a new one. E.G. Smog (smoke and fog)
Amelioration
A word takes on a different, more positive meaning than it had previously, thereby gaining status. E.G. Pretty - sly:attractive, Priest - old man:church leader.
Pejoration
A word takes on a different, more negative meaning than it had previously so losing status. E.G. Notorious - widely known:infamous, Idiot - private citizen:someone being stupid, Cunning - learned:deceitful.
Weakening
A word loses the strength of its original meaning. E.G. Soon and presently - immediately:in a short while.
Narrowing (for specialisation)
A word becomes more specific in its meaning. E.G. Meat - any food:flesh of an animal. Wife - any woman:married woman.
Broadening (for generalising)
A word keeps it's original meaning but acquires others. E.G. Place - a broad street:an area.
Prescriptive
Pre conceived idea, believing that high standards should be maintained. This point of view places value on the purity of language and that there is both 'good' and 'bad' language. Prescriptivism is about looking at the past and seeing current English usage as showing declining standards.
Descriptive
An attitude to language that seeks to describe it without making value judgements. Gives spoken English the same status as written forms. Descriptivism is a more recent approach, resulting possibly from English as a global language.