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47 Cards in this Set

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KNEE JOINT

tibiofemoral articulation

KNEE MOTION

1. flexion


2. extension


3. external rotation


4. internal rotation

1. FLEXION

- motion of tibia in sagittal plane


- angle b.t tibia & femur relative to anterior aspect of body becomes greater

2. EXTENSION

- motion of tibia in sagittal plane

- angle b.t. tibia & femur relative to anterior aspect of body becomes smaller


3. EXTERNAL ROTATION

- motion of tibia in transverse plane about longitudinal axis

- anterior aspect of tibia moves toward lateral aspect of body



4. INTERNAL ROTATION

- motion of tibia in transverse plane about longitudinal axis


- anterior aspect of tibia moves toward midline

KNEE BONES FROM ANTERIOR ASPECT

1. diaphysis of femur


2. epiphysis of femur


3. medial condyle of femur


4. fibula


5. tibia

1. DIAPHYSIS OF FEMUR

- long narrow shaft


- very dense


- compact or lamellar bone

shaft

2. EPIPHYSIS OF FEMUR

- on distal and proximal aspects


- larger cross-sectional area


- cancellous bone


- enhances stability b.t articular bones

ends

3. MEDIAL CONDYLE OF FEMUR

- oblong ball of bone on medial aspect of femur within the distal epiphysis

ball

4. FIBULA

- articulates with tibia @ tibiofibular articulation


- fibula doesn't articulate w. femur



little bone

5. TIBIA

- primary weight bearing bone


- articular bone of the tibiofemoral articulation

big bone

KNEE BONES FROM POSTERIOR ASPECT

1. hyaline cartilage


2. intercondylar fossa

1. HYALINE CARTILAGE

- shiny white substance


- on medial & lateral condyles of femur


- articular cartilage


- limits friction b.t. articular bones

2. INTERCONDYLAR FOSSA

- distal aspect of femur on posterior aspect


- large gap b.t. medial & lateral condyles


- important because:


- large gap on tibial plateau b.t. medial & lateral tibial articular facets

KNEE BONES FROM LATERAL ASPECT

1. shape of articular aspect of femur


2. shape of articular aspect of tibia


3. movements of bones

1. SHAPE OF ARTICULAR ASPECT OF FEMUR

- convex


- femur = more stable bone in this articulation

2. SHAPE OF ARTICULAR ASPECT OF TIBIA

- concave


- tibia = more mobile bone in articulation

3. MOVEMENTS OF BONES

tibia glides on femur...




EXTEND KNEE:


tibia moves towards anterior aspect of femur in sagittal plane




FLEX KNEE:


tibia moves towards posterior aspect of femur in sagittal plane




INTERNAL/EXTERNAL ROTATION:


tibia rotates on femur in transverse plane about longitudinal axis

LATERAL LIGAMENTS OF KNEE

1. lateral collateral ligament


2. lateral meniscus


3. coronary ligament

1. LATERAL COLLATERAL LIGAMENT

- prevents excessive varus motion




*like if someone kicked you in medial aspect of knee




- round and thin ligament

2. LATERAL MENISCUS

- fibrocartilage disk


- dissipates compressive forces b.t. lateral femoral condyle & lateral tibial articular facet


- "torn cartilage" - but medial meniscus tears more often

3. CORONARY LIGAMENT

- attaches lateral meniscus to tibial plateau


- oriented vertically

SUPERIOR VIEW OF TIBIAL PLATEAU:


MEDIAL v. LATERAL

- tibial plateau articulates w. superior & posterior aspect of medial & lateral condyles




medial v. lateral:


1. articular facet surface area


2. meniscus diameter


3. meniscus thickness

1. SURFACE AREA OF ARTICULAR FACET

medial > lateral

2. MENISCUS DIAMETER

medial > lateral

3. MENISCUS THICKNESS


& 2 IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS

peripheral = thicker


center = thinner




SHAPE FUNCTIONS TO:


1. increase congruency b.t. femur & tibia


2. allows synovium to pump around articular structures during bone motion

OVERLYING MUSCULATURE ON LATERAL KNEE

1. IT-band


A. tensor fascia latae


2. biceps femoris

1. ILIOTIBIAL BAND (IT-BAND)

- dynamic stabilizer of LCL



1a. TENSOR FASCIA LATAE

- contractile unit of IT-band


- contracts + generates compressive force applied to knee


- stimulating this muscle produces varus force & protects LCL




- inserts into anterior fibers of IT-band



2. BICEPS FEMORIS

- inserts into proximal head of fibula

MEDIAL LIGAMENTS OF KNEE

1. medial collateral ligament

1. MEDIAL COLLATERAL LIGAMENT

- prevents valgus motion




*generated by being hit on lateral aspect of knee - causes medial joint space to increase




- thick, broad, long




- disruption = cant be repaired

OVERLYING MUSCULATURE ON MEDIAL KNEE

pes anserinus:


1. sartorius


2. gracilis


3. semitendinosus




= dynamic stabilizers for MCL

POSTERIOR LIGAMENTS OF KNEE

1. posterior cruciate ligament

1. POSTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT

- prevents excessive posterior translation of tibia on femur




*AKA keeps knee from moving backwards on femur




- origin = anterior & medial aspect of medial condyle


- inserts: intercondylar area of posterior tibial plateau




- strongest ligament in knee




- when we flex knee - posterior trans of tibia on knee

OVERLYING MUSCULATURE ON POSTERIOR KNEE

- dynamic stabilizers for ACL




1. biceps femoris


2. semitendinosus


3. semimembranosus

1. BICEPS FEMORIS (independent & with...)


2. SEMITENDINOSUS


3. SEMIMEMBRANOSUS

BICEPS FEMORIS:


- on posterior & lateral knee


- contract...




INDEPENDENTLY:


- dynamic stabilizer for LCL




W. SEMI'S:


- dynamic stabilizer for ACL

ANTERIOR LIGAMENTS OF KNEE

1. anterior cruciate ligament

1. ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT


- prevents excessive anterior translation of tibia on femur




*AKA keeps knee from moving forward on femur




- origin = posterior & medial aspect of lateral condyle of femur


- inserts = medial aspect of intercondylar area of anterior tibial plateau




- smaller than PCL


- takes 1/2 of the force needed to disrupt PCL to disrupt ACL

ACL MECHANISMS OF INJURY

1. HYPEREXTENSION:


2. EXCESSIVE TIBIAL ROTATIN




- when ruptured - cant heal


- cause proximal & distal segments separate


- wound edges "unravel"


- ACL disruption thus requires reconstruction, won't heal

OVERLYING MUSCULATURE ON ANTERIOR KNEE

1. patella


2. quadriceps tendon


3. medial patellar retinaculum


4. lateral patellar retinaculum


5. patellar ligament

1. PATELLA

- AKA kneecap


- largest sesamoid bone in body




sesamoid bone = one found within tendon

2. QUADRICEPS TENDON

- connects 4 quad muscles w. patella



3. MEDIAL PATELLAR RETINACULUM

- ligamentous-like structure




- stabilizes patella against excessive lateral movement of patella on femur

4. LATERAL PATELLAR RETINACULUM

- ligamentous-like structure




- stabilizes patella against excessive medial movement of patella on femur

5. PATELLAR LIGAMENT

- falls b.t. medial & lateral patellar retinaculum




- attaches inferior pole of patella to tibial tuberosity