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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is easier for plants to get on land?
light and gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide)
What is the most serious problem that land plants had and how did they fix it?
lack of water, fixed it by developing vascular tissues like xylem and phloem in roots, stems, and leaves to transport water
How did the development of a waxy cuticle help plants?
prevented drying out, temperature variation, and uv light from going through thin leaves
How was the problem of gas exchange through a waxy cuticle fixed on land?
The development of guard cells with stomata. When plant are full of water guard cells are hard and they separate, allowing extra water to evaporate and gases to diffuse in. At night, cells are loose and closed with no stomata, and water is therefore conserved.
What were the first land plants?
D. Bryophyta - mosses
Which division has no vascular tissue?
D. Bryophyta
Where do mosses grow?
moist environments
Do mosses have seeds?
What do mosses have to anchor themselves to the ground?
root-like rhizoids
Mosses are capable of alternation of generations between what two life stages?
gametophyte (n)
sporophyte (2n)
What is a vascular plant?
plant with vascular tissue (xylem and phloem)
What life stage is dominant in vascular plants?
sporophyte stage
What seedless plant is used to make Christmas wreaths?
club mosses in D. Lycophyta
Plants in what division have a silica coat?
D. Sphenophyta
In ferns, the horizontal stems are known as what?
Do ferns have seeds?
Where are sporophylls in conifers?
in cones
How do female prothalli attract male prothalli in ferns?
by emitting chemicals
What does the seed in conifers contain?
source of nutrients
seed coat
What is a cycad?
sawed off looking palm tree with cones
What is a Ginkgo?
phylum with only 1 species and separate male and female plants
What is a Gnetophyte?
a desert shrub with flagellated sperm
What are Coniferophyta?
the dominant species of conifers that can grow in cold climates, poor soil, and acidic soil
- it has both sexes in 1 tree
- sperm is not flagellated
What produce the woody tissue?
xylem (water) and phloem (nutrients)
What is vascular cambium?
type of tissue to produce next year's vascular tissue (xylem and phloem)
What kind of plants have vascular cambium?
trees and some shrubs
In conifers, what is the male gametophyte?
4-celled pollen grain
In conifers, what does the male gametophyte become?
2 wings, 1 sperm, 1 pollen tube
In conifers, what is the female gametophyte?
several archegonia with eggs
In conifers, where are the male microspores produced?
in microsporangia