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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Differentiate between a measurement, evaluation, and a test.

Measurement: A process in which the tester administers a test and obtains a score

Evaluation: a process of making judgement decisions based on analyzed test scores (results) obtained in measurement.

Test: A variety of tools or instruments for measurement. In physical education/KIN tests can be: written, physical performance, etc.

What are the three criteria for test results?

1. Consistent (reliable)

2. Truthful (valid)

3. Accurate

To improve, improve measurement = better evaluation

Test scores can be objective or subjective. Differentiate these.

Objective: when two or more people who score the same test assign similar score

Subjective: lacks standardized scoring, which introduces a source of measurement error.

What are the parts of an evaluation?

1. Collecting suitable data (measurement)

2. Judging the value of these data according to some standard

3. making decisions based no these data

Note: this facilitates good judgement

What is the purpose of a testing?

To enhance the decision making making process so that improvements can be made:

1. Placement

2. Diagnosis

3. Evaluation of Achievement

4. Prediction

5. Program Evaluation

6. Motivation

Define and differentiate between formative and summative methods of evaluation.

Formative: judgment of achievement during the formative stages of learning. (feedback during) - to enhance instruction and learning

Summative: judgment of achievement at end of an instructional unit and typically involves the administration of tests at the conclusion of an instructional unit to determine the extent objectives were met

When using formative versus summative evaluation, describe which standard is used for criterion versus norm.

1. Formative evaluation uses criterion referenced standards and is used to explicitly define behaviors

2. Summative evaluation uses norm or criterion referenced standards, is broader, and addresses behaviors or combinations of several specific behaviors

Differentiate between Criterion and norm referenced standards.

Criterion: is used to determine attainment to specific level (perf. for all) and assesses based on a system w/ predet. standard against which meaningfulness of a score is identified.

Norm: is used to judge an individual's performance in relation to the performance of other members of a well-defined group (for selecting)

What is a common norming method?

Percentile ranks - the percentage of the group that can be expected to fall into a category

EX: males or females fall into a certain percentile ranking depending on age/score

BMI, Pull-up test by years into a percentile, sit-up test into a percentile

What is a good way to differentiate Norm/Criterion based on the type of evaluation one can assume from each?

1. Norm = relative evaluation - relative to norms developed by others (continuous)

2. Criterion = absolute evaluation - evaluation by comparison to an absolute criterion (categorical)

What is the motivational effect of assessment for norm and criterion?

1. Norm - often do not motivate individuals to participate in exercise.

2. Criterion: motivate individuals to achieve the standard

Identify the types of assessment:

1. Blood pressure

2. Blood cholesterol

3. Fitness level

4. Written exam

5. Performance in a college class

1. Criterion

2. Criterion

3. Norm

4. Criterion

5. Grade-criterion


List some examples of types of tests

1. Physical performance: LSPT, PACER

2. Written: BREQ-2, PAQ-A

3. Technological: body plethysmograph, heart rate monitor

4. Clinical: fasting blood glucose, SAC

What is the purpose of testing?

To assess constructs:

1. Motor function development

2. Organic development

3. Acquisition of knowledge

4. Social and emotional development

What is motor function development?

1. Agility

2. Balance

3. Kinesthetic perception

4. power

5. Rhythm

6. Speed and reaction

7. General movement ability

What is organic development?

Physical fitness:

1. Body composition

2. Cardiovascular capacity

3. Flexibility

4. Muscular strength

5. Muscular endurance

What is acquisition of knowledge?

Knowledge about:

1. the body

2. fitness components

3. Value of exercising

4. sports

5. performance proficiency

What is social/emotional development?

1. Sportsmanship

2. Personal character

3. Leadership

4. Interpersonal interaction

5. Attitudes towards healthy lifestyles

Who is involved in testing?

1. Test giver

2. Test taker

3. a power relationship

4. Different perspectives

What do we test?

1. Physiological responses

2. Performance

3. Knowledge

4. Physical fitness

5. Affect/motivation

What are the stages of testing?

1. Test selection

2. Preparation

3. Administration

4. Data processing

5. Decision-making and feedback

Where can we find various sources for test selection.

1. Internet

2. Professional organizations (ACSM, SHAPEAmerica, NATA)

3. Journals

4. Test manuals

Differentiate between Jingle and Jangle fallacies

1. A jingle fallacy: two tests with similar names do not necessarility measure the same construct

2. Jangle fallacy: two tests with dissimilar names do not necessarily measure different constructs

Note: do not assume the test name reflects the construct it measures

Name and define important test characteristics:

1. Reliability: consistency of scores

2. Validity: truthfulness of scores

3. Discrimination: ability to differentiate between performances

4. Practicality: feasibility within environmental and social constraints

5. Mass testability: accessibility to many

6. Documentation: test manual - info availability

How do we reduce score error in testing?

X=t+e where:

X-the score obtained

t-the person's true underlying score

e-some of all measurement error

T/F: Error can be positive or negative

True: positive causes the score to be higher while negative causes the score to be lower

What is the solution to errors?

1. Choose reliable and valid tests (including using good-quality equipment)

2. Train test givers

3. Give clear instructions

4. Demonstrate or provide an example

5. Provide warm-up and practice

6. Ensure optimal environment

What are sources of measurement error?

1. Test (instrument)

2. Tester (judge/test administrator)

3. Test-taker

4. Testing environment

What are some ethical issues to be concerned with?

1. Fairness: equal opportunity to succeed

2. Score privacy and confidentiality

3. Data protection and security

4. Safety: training test givers; assessing test risks

5. Positive experience for test takes