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43 Cards in this Set

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Bourgeoisie

Marxist term.


Capitalist class - upper class, owners of means of production.


Those with political and ideological power

Compensatory education

Government education policies that seek to tackle problem of under-achievement, providing extra support and funding to schools and families

Operation head start in US

Comprehensive system

Where all children attend same type of secondary school (non selective system)

Correlation

When two or more factors vary together


E.g. correlation between low social class and low educational achievement

Correspondence principle

Way organisation and control of schools mirrors / corresponds to workplace

Cultural capital

Knowledge, attitudes, values, language, tastes and abilities that middle class transmit

Educational success largely based on possession of cultural capital

Cultural deprivation

Theory that working class are inadequately socialised and lack cultural capital

Culture

All things learnt by society or group of people (norms, values, knowledge, beliefs, skills)

Hidden Curriculum

All things learnt without being formally taught, acquired through everyday workings of school (rules, dress, attendance, obedience, competitiveness)

Deferred gratification

Postponing immediate rewards with aim to produce greater reward at later day

Deviance

Behaviour that does not conform to norms

Ethics

Issues of right and wrong, moral principles

Ethnocentric

Seeing/ judging things in biased way from viewpoint of one particularly culture e.g. national curriculum, tends to value white culture (history, literature, religion)

Fordism

Type of industrial production , using supervised Low skill workers and assembly line technology to mass produce

Hawthorne effect

Where subjects behave differently because they know they are being studied

Hypothesis

Untested theory/explanation expressed as a statement

Immediate gratification

Preference for immediate reward without regard for longer-term consequences

Individualism

Belief that individual is more important than group or community , actions influenced by own self interest than sense of obligation to others

Internationalism

Sociological perspective that focuses on small scale (micro level) interactions between individuals and groups. Seek to understand meaning behind actions

Interpretivism

Focus on how we construct society through meaning we attach to events, actions and situations. Favour qualitative data.

Labelling

Attaching a definition/ meaning to individual or group. Often stereotypes.

Macro-level

Focus on large scale, social structure as a whole. See individuals as shaped by society

Theorists such as functionalism and Marxism

Material deprivation

Poverty, lack of basic necessities such as food, housing, clothing, money to buy these.

Meritocracy

System Where everyone has equal opportunity to succeed, rewards and status acchieve by own efforts

Micro-level

Do use on small scale, face to face interactions. See individuals constructing society.

Theorists such as interactionism

Modernism

Society has fairly clean cut. Predictable structure. Can gain true scientific knowledge on how society functions . Can be used to improve society

Modernist perspective - functionalism. Marxism, positivism

Myth of meritocracy

Ideology legitimating inequality by falsely claiming everyone has equal opportunity

New vocationalism

Idea education should meet need of economy, equipping young people with knowledge, skills, attitues and values need to prepare for work.

Practical subjects

Objectivity

Absence of bias or preconceived ideas. See things as they really are

Operationalisation

Process of turning sociological concept/theory into something measurable e.g study effects of social class on academic achievement, use parental occupation to measure social class .

Parentocracy

Rule by parents, ideology of parental choice of school

Polarisation

Process resulting in creation of two opposite extremes e.g pupils response to labelling create pro school and anti school subculture

Positivism

Belief society is made up of social facts that can be studied scientifically to discover cause and effect

Postmodernism

Belief in progress and view true knowledge of society will enable us to improve it

Reject the modernist

Proletariat

Working class, are wage slaves, forced to sell labour to bourgeoisie to survive

Post Fordism

Type of industrial production. Highly skilled, adaptable workforce combined with computerised technology

Self fulfilling prophecy

Prediction made about personal or group comes true simply because it's been made

Social control

Means by which society tried to ensure members behave as other expect them to .

Socialisation

Process by which individual learns/ internalises culture of society

Stigma

Negative label or Mark of disapproval, shame attached to person, group or characteristic

Stratified diffusion

Spread of beliefs and practices from one class to another

Structural theories

Individuals shaped by way society is structured and organised

Subjectivity

Viewpoint influences perception or judgement