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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Sensitivity and Specificity of a Blood and Urine Galactomannan Antigen Assay for Diagnosis of Systemic Aspergillosis in Dogs
Which Aspergillosis species is implicated in canine sinonasal Aspergillosis

a. Aspergillus fumigatus
How is Aspergillosis typically diagnosed

a. Combination of specific antibody detection, imaging of the nasal cavity, rhinoscopic visualization of fungal plaques, and culture of Aspergillus spp. From nasal biopsies
Systemic Aspergillosis is characterized by what

a. Infection of the intervertebral disks, bones, thoracic lymph nodes, lung, and renal pelvis
Which Aspergillosis species are found to cause systemic infections in dogs

a. A. terreus and flavus
Previously fungal culture of urine diagnosed systemic Aspergillosis in what percentage of infected dogs

a. 52%
When compared to the gold standard of culture, the sensitivity of the Aspergillus GMA ELISA assay serum and urine was how sensitive and specific

a. 93-89% respectively; increased to 100% when dogs with only pulmonary involvement were excluded
As in humans, what is indicative of a clinical response and disease severity

a. Magnitude of serum GMI
What was the cause for false positive results in this study that affected the specificity

a. Dogs treated with Plasmalyte 148 and dogs with other systemic mycotic infections
What effect does plasmalyte have on the assay

a. The gluconate in plasmalyte is fermented of glucose by Penicillium and Aspergillus sp.. and ther can be crossreaction

Diminazene Diaceturate for Treatment of Chronic Cytauxzoon felis parasitemia in Naturally Infected Cats
What is the long term effect of Cytauxzoon in cats that survive the initial infection

a. Remain persistently parasitemic without illness
What is the tick vector that transmits Cytauxzoon

a. Ambylomma americanum (lone star tick)
What were the major adverse events seen in cats treated with Diminazene

a. Ptyalism and pain at injection site
How effective was diminazene at clearing the organism after 10 weeks

a. Not effective, there was no change in the suspected parastiemia
What is the natural reservoir for Cytauxzoonosis

a. Bobcat (lynx rufus)

Ehrlichia muris Infection in a Dog from Minnesota
What test has allowed for understanding species of Ehrlichia and the host range as well as pathogenic potential

a. DNA testing
Which tick is theorized to transmit Ehrlichia muris

a. Ixodes

Efficacy of Intranasal Administration of a Modified Live Feline Herpesvirus 1 and Feline Calicivirus against Disease Caused by Bordetella bronchiseptica after Experimental Challenge
What are the differences conferred from intranasal vaccinations over parenteral

a. Intranasal vaccines have a quicker onset of action (rapid serologic response)
b. Greater lymphoblast stimulation
c. Lessen clinical signs of disease when exposed to infectious agents not contained in the vaccine
What differences were observed between experimental groups and control groups

a. Experimental groups demonstrated less symptoms of Bordetella infection (received intranasal FHV and FC) than control groups
How long lived is the cross protection against nonvaccinated entities

a. Short lived, less than 20 days
What is the proposed mechanism by which nonspecific immunity is induced by the intranasal vaccine

a. Rapid boosting of innate immunity, activation of NK cells, upregulation of inflammatory cytokines

The Prevalence of Leptospiral Antibodies in Free Roaming Cats in Worcester County, Massachusetts
What percentage of cats were seropositive in this study

a. 4.8%
What was the most common serovar isolated

a. Autumnalis
What are the proposed reasons as to why there is a lower seroprevalence of Lepto in cats

a. Cats could respond to infection at a lower MAT, cats may have a more rapid immune response, undescribed serovars

Effects of Recent Leptospira Vaccination on Whole Blood Real-time PCR Testing in Healthy Client-Owned Dogs
Why does the MAT lack sensitivity

a. Can be negative in infected animals if tested too early
Why does the MAT lack specificity

a. Does not distinguish between vaccine-induced and infection-induced antibodies, also lacks repeatability between labs
What type of vaccines have been reported to interfere with PCR results

a. Killed viral vaccines
What affect did vaccination have on the PCR results

a. No dog had a positive PCR test which means that vaccination should not affect diagnosis of Lepto, real-time PCR is both sensitive and specific
What has been considered the best method for identification of urinary shedding in dogs

a. Urinary PCR
What are the limitations to PCR testing

a. False negative results with small sample size, unknown time of detection after clinical signs start
Efficacy and Adverse Effects of (R) -9-(2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)-2,6- diaminopurine in Feline Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Cats
What is the MOA for AZT

a. It inhibits reverse transcriptase
What is the mechanism of action for nucleoside analogues

a. Adefovir (PMEA) and Tenofovir (PMPA) both prevent nucleosides from interacting with viral reverse transcriptase at the rate-limiting step
Did this study show that Tenofovir had significant improvement clinically and virologically in cats with FIV

a. No, not during the 6 week treatment period
What was the proposed reason for this outcome

a. Cats in the study population did not have clinical signs related to their FIV infection and they also had high quality of life scores so little room for improvement, theorized that viral load was already quite low
Were any adverse effects seen in cats with etiher treatment group

a. Yes, both experienced hematologic effects as cats developed anemia with decreased RBC counts, PCV, and hemoglobin concentrations, some had skin ulcerations and idiosyncratic liver disease
Is PMPA recommended as a therapy for cats with FIV

a. No, it did not help cats and had increased adverse effects. Questionable whether cats with FIV need therapy as many are symptomatic