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48 Cards in this Set

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Vertebral Osteomyelitis and Multiple Cutaneous Lesions in a Dog cause by Nocardia Pseudobrasiliensis
What is a difference one can see with Nocardia versus other acid-fast bacteria with respect to staining

a. Nocardia will stain positive with Kinyoun and will be negative cold acid-fast staining
73
What are the reported behaviors of Nocardia Psuedobrasiliensis

a. In humans, reported in immunocompromised and elderly patients as an aggressive and disseminated disease; highly resistant to TMS
74
What are the general behaviors of nocardia bacteria

a. Soil-dwelling aerobic actinomycete bacteria and have fungal like morphology (thin, filamentous, branching), “beaded appearance”, they are gram + and will sometimes stain as blue with diff-quick or be nonstaining in WBC
75
What are the more common reported lesions in veterinary medicine with respect to Nocardia

a. Draining cutaneous lesions, pleuropneumonia, mastitis in cattle
76
What ways can cyclosporine immunosuppress patients and allow nocardiosis

a. Inhibits neutrophil chemotaxis and degranulation, prevents superoxide generation and reduces T lymphocyte activation and proliferation
77
What are the standard treatments of nocardia in dogs and cats

a. Sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and clindamycin
78
What is the drug of choice for human nocardiosis

a. Imipenim

79
Using Syndromic Surveillance to Estimate Baseline Rates for Healthcare-Associated Infectious in Critical Care Units of Small Animal Referral Hospitals
What are the reported rates of hospitals (veterinary teaching hospitals) that feel that they have had outbreaks of infections in their hospitals

a. 82%
80
What percentage hospitals felt that their personnel are reported to have been infected by zoonotic infections

a. 50%
81
What are the benefits of surveillance programs

a. Allow detection of changes in the rate or the distribution of health care acquired infections with leads to idenitification of threats
82
What is syndromic surveillance and what are the benefits with this type of surveillance

a. Tracking nonspecific indicators of health or disease such as prescription medications purchased or types of organ systems effected in patients- beneficial because less costly, less time intensive and could recognize diseases earlier
83
The likelihood of acquiring HCAI in patients hospitalized in ICU’s is how much more than noncritical patients

a. 5-10 times more likely
84
What were the documented risk factors for nosocomial infections

a. Increased duration of hospitalization, undergoing surgery, placement of a urinary catheter, anti-ulcer medications, receiving antibiotics other than at times perioperatively
85
Because syndromic surveillance is considered a screening test, will it have greater sensitivity or specificity

a. Sensitivity

86
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Concentrations in Dogs with Spirocercosis
What percentage of spirocerca cases will undergo malignant transformation

a. 25%
87
What treatment is recommended for nonneoplastic spirocercosis

a. Doramectin
88
What is the difference between the appearance of nonneoplastic and neoplastic nodules and is there a correlation with appearance

a. Nonneoplastic nodules are smooth, rounded and often operculated whereas the neoplastic nodules are lobular, cauliflower like and often ulcerated and necrotic. Not diagnostic though and appearance doesn’t always correlate with malignancy
89
Are CRP levels elevated only in neoplastic nodules

a. No, can be elevated in nonmalignant nodules too
90
Which growth factor has been documented as an expression in soft tissue sarcomas, extraskeletal osteosarcoma, neoplastic nerve sheath tumor, Hemangiosarcoma, and liposarcoma

a. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)
91
Can VEGF be used as a potential diagnostic for neoplastic transformation of spirocercosis

a. Yes, both plasma and serum VEGF were significantly higher in dogs with neoplastic spirocercosis compared to nonneoplastic and control groups
92
Which two medications could be potentially used as they are antibodies for VEGF

a. Bevacizumab and kinase inhibitor (sorafenib)

93
Hemostatic Abnormalities in Uncomplicated Babesiosis (Babesia rossi) in Dogs
What is the most common hematologic hallmarks in dogs with babesiosis

a. Thrombocytopenia (although clinical bleeding is not common)
94
What is a well-described consequence of babesiosis

a. SIRS
95
Low platelets can cause what kind of artifact in TEG

a. Hypocoagulable indices
96
TEG performed on dogs that had uncomplicated Babesiosis had what kind of results

a. Have normal overall hemostatic function
b. Although not out of the reference range and not statistically significant, the k value was negatively associated with platelet count indicating hypocoagulable but this was not observed clinically and still in reference range
97
Are dogs with babesiosis going to have a tendency to be hyper or hypocoagulable

a. Hypercoagulable
98
What other significant changes were noted among the control and the babesiosis groups

a. Babesiosis groups had a higher fibrinogen level and a lower AT level, more prolonged aPTT
99
Bradyarrythmias and Pacemaker Therapy in Dogs with Chagas Disease
Chagas disease is caused by what

a. Trypanosoma cruzi (protozoan) and is an important cause for myocarditis in dogs
100
How is Chagas transmitted

a. Bite from infected vector or ingestion of the vector or via blood transfusions or transplacental or transmammary infection
101
What is the infective stage

a. Trypomastigotes
102
What is the stage that causes the pathogenesis through replication in the myocyte

a. Amastigote (after 14 days )
103
What clinical signs can be seen with Chagas

a. Hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, lymphadeonopathy, arrhythmias, ventricular myocardial dysfunction, heart failure, and sudden death
104
What are the poor prognostic indicators found in humans with Chaga’s disease

a. Ventricular tachycardia, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, 3rd degree AV block
b. Treated with pacemaker
105
What are the most common human arrhythmias associated with Chagas disease

a. Sinus node dysfunction, 2nd, 3rd degree AV block, atrial fibrillation with AV block
106
What are the most common arrhythmias in dogs with Chagas

a. Ventricular arrhythmias and is a common cause for sudden death; AV block
107
Which dog breeds are most at risk for Chagas

a. Sporting or working breeds, can be urban or rural and small dogs are not uncommon
108
Chagas infiltration of the myocardium results in what

a. Intense inflammatory infiltration and subsequent dilatation, arrhythmias, and elevations in troponin
109
What are the recommended treatment options

a. Pacemaker therapy for bradyarrhythmias is a valuable treatment
b. Benznidazole (usually for acute infections) but can reduce parasite loads

110
Clinical findings and survival in cats naturally infected with FIV
What are the risk factors for FIV infections

a. Male sex, intact status, outdoor access, increasing age, and concurrent health problems
111
What things are measured in humans with FIV to predict a clinical outcome

a. CD4+ lymphocyte counts and plasma viral load
112
What variety of clinical syndromes have been described in cats with FIV

a. Oral disease, persistent cytopenias, immune-mediated disease, unexplained wasting, atypical or refractory infections, neurologic signs
113
What biochemical differences were found between FIV infected cats and control cats

a. FIV cats were more hypernatremic, Hyperglobulinemia; high grade B cell lymphoma higher risk
114
Differences that were not observed between the two populations included what

a. Differences in life expectancy

115
Phylogenetic Diversity of Bacteria Isolated from Sick Dogs Using the BAPGM Enrichment Culture Platform
Why does standard culture fail to identify many bacterial infections

a. Cannot isolate fastidious, intracellular, or uncultivable microorganisms that require special growth conditions
116
What is BAPGM

a. Novel liquid bacterial growth medium, Bartonella alpha proteobacteria growth medium that promotes growth of insect cells in culture and is optimized to isolate bartonella species
117
What type of growth medium has been used for mycobacterium

a. Egg-based agar because mycobacterium is slowly dividing
118
What is the outcome in this study of using BAPGM combined with subculture isolation of 16s rDNA PCR amplification

a. Identification of bacteria that were previously uncultivable in situations where bacteria played an uknown role in the pathogenesis of disesase conditions including alpha proteobacteria (vs. conventional means), others included Streptococcus, staphylococcus, pseudomonas, nocardia, burkholderia, sphingobium, sphigopyxis, aneuribaclillus, cibimonas, nocardioides
119
What is sphingomonas

a. Gram negative organism in class alpha proteobacteria found in soil, water, pipes, coral reefs that can be an opportunistic pathogen in humans causing sepsis and bacteremia (produces a biofilm and can contaminate IV lines, catheters, etc). In this study was linked to polyarthritis in dog