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90 Cards in this Set

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Porifera synapomorphies (2)
aquiferous system
Other characteristics of Porifera (4)
no true tissues
totipotent cells
Classes of Porifera (3)
General body forms of Porifera (3)

Difference between asconoid sponges and syconoid/leuconoid? (3)
porocyte with ostium (others have dermal pores)
no choanocyte chambers
no prosopyle/apopyle

Difference in angle of supply in sponges?
Large: static environment, avoid recycling water through it, chimney shape
Small: dynamic environment, always fresh supply of water (eg intertidal zone), flat shape
What are the 3 types of cells found in the epidermis of Porifera?
1. Exopinacocytes
2. Gland cells (mucus)
3. Porocytes (Asconoid only)
What are the 6 types of cells found in the mesohyl of Porifera?
1. Archaeocytes (differentiable)
2. Myocytes (contractile)
3. Rhabdiferous cells (create mesoglea)
4. Sclerocytes (create spicules)
5. Spongocytes (create spongin)
6. Chromocytes (pigment)
What are the 2 types of cells found in the internal lining of Porifera?
1. Endopinacocytes
2. Choanocytes
List the 5 functions of choanocytes in Porifera
1. Feeding
2. Undergo meiosis to become sperm
3. Capture sperm for fertilization
4. Generate water current
5. Gas exchange
What are the 2 methods of asexual reproduction in Porifera?
1. Fragmentation
2. Budding
Describe the life cycle of Porifera
Modified mixed: free spawn gametes but with internal fertilization
What type of cleavage do Porifera zygotes undergo?
Describe the function and structure of Porifera reduction bodies
Only in hypotonic environments (fresh water)
Coat of spicules & collagen
Internal sac of archaeocytes and trophocytes for food
Archaeocytes exit through micropyle when conditions improve
Cnidaria synapomorphies (3)
1. Polyp phase
2. Cnidocytes
3. Epitheliomuscular cells (no true mesoderm)
Subphyla of Cnidaria (3)
1. Anthozoa
2. Medusozoa (Hydrozoa & Scyphozoa)
3. Myxozoa

Which members of Cnidaria have mesoglea vs mesenchyme?
Mesoglea: Hydrozoa
Mesenchyme: Anthozoa, Scyphozoa
Do Cnidaria have true tissues?
Describe 2 types of cells found on the epidermis of Cnidarians
1. Epitheliomuscular cells (with myonemes for contraction)
2. Receptor cells (neurons)
Describe the structure of a cnidocyte
Nematocyst: structure inside cnidocyte cell
Operculum: lid
Cnidocyl: sensor
What are the enlarged cells on the collar of an Anthozoan called and what are they used for?
Acrorhagi - for defense (release nematocysts)
What are the holes and bumps called on an Anthozoan's epidermis?
Cinclides (holes) & verrucae (bumps)
What is a limbus?
"Foot" of Anthozoan
What is the stomodeum?
Lining of pharynx in Anthozoan
What is the groove in the pharynx in Anthozoa called?
In Anthozoa, what are the 2 different types of muscles?
Retractor (shorter/taller)
Radial (wider/smaller)
Gonads arrive from which tissue in Anthozoa?
What are the internal cells of an Anthozoan that hold nematocysts called?
Describe what kind of life style Hydra has (3)
No medusae - polyp only

Do Hydra reproduce asexually or sexually?
Both (budding or ectodermal gonads)
Describe the life style of Obelia (Hydrozoa) (2)
Differentiated polyps
What are the names of the differentiated polyps in Obelia (Hydrozoa)
What is the name for all layers together in Hydrozoa (epidermis + gastrodermis + mesoglea)?
What is the name of the non-living skeleton present in Obelia (Hydra) colonies?
How does Obelia (Hydra) reproduce?
Asexual - medusa pops out of pore in gonozooid
How does a Hydromedusa swim?
Jet propulsion - contraction of velum
Gonads arise from which tissue in Hydromedusae?
Gonads arise from which tissue in Scyphomedusae?
What are the branched extensions of the GVC in Scyphomedusae called?
Radial canals
Describe the structure and function of a Rhopalium and in which class they are found in
2 Lappets form surrounding structure
Statocyst for sense
Chemoreceptor and ocellus present for sense
Connected to neurons

Used for orientation
Found in Scyphomedusae
What are the 2 types of "skeletons" Cnidarians use?
Hydrostatic skeleton
CaCO3 or chiton endo/exoskeletons in corals (creates sclerite -> corallite -> corallum)
Do Anthozoans reproduce asexually or sexually?
Asexual: fission or pedal laceration
Sexual: endodermal gonads
Are Anthozoans monoecious or dioecious?
Are Hydrozoans monoecious or dioecious?
Polyps: monoecious
Medusae: dioecious
Are Scyphozoans monoecious or dioecious?
Polyps: monoecious
Medusae: dioecious
How do planula larvae differ in Anthozoans and Medusozoans?
Anthozoa: planktotrophic
Medusozoa: lecithotrophic
What type of cleavage do Cnidarians undergo?
What method is the gut formed by in Cnidarians?
Define archenteron
Early gut formed by invagination
What is the blastopore? What does this become in Cnidaria?
First opening: GVC opening in Cnidaria
What are the stages that Cnidarians go through from planula larva to adult? (4)
Planula larva
What are the synapomorphies of Platyhelminthes?
What are characteristics of Platyhelminthes? (7)
Incomplete gut
Triploblastic (origin of mesoderm)
Dorsoventrally flattened
Bilateral symmetry
Net-like nervous system
What are the 4 classes of Platyhelminthes?
Turbellaria (free-living)
Monogenea (1 host)
Trematoda (at least 2 hosts)
Cestoda (at least 2 hosts)

What are the 2 types of locomotion by Platyhelminthes?
1. Ciliary gliding
2. Muscular undulations by antagonistic muscles
What are the structures in Platyhelminthes called for light reception and chemoreception?
The pharynx in Platyhelminthes is of which type of tissue? What characteristic does it have?
Do Platyhelminthes have mesoglea or mesenchyme?
Are Platyhelminthes' ventral nerve cords endodermal or ectodermal?
What are the 2 types of antagonistic muscles present in Platyhelminthes?
Dorsoventral & Transverse
Circular & Longitudinal/Oblique
Excretion & osmoregulation are carried out by which structure in Platyhelminthes?
What type of tissue are protonephridia (Platyhelminthes) made from? What are the 3 main parts?
Ectodermal (invagination)
1. Nephridiopore
2. Nephridioduct
3. Flame cell
Describe the nervous system in Platyhelminthes (tissue origin, structures involved, location)
Inverted pigment cup ocellus
Cephalization, cerebral ganglion
Describe the inverted cup pigment ocellus
Reflective pigment
Photosensory pigment
Retinular cells
Optic nerve to brain
Are Platyhelminthes monoecious or dioecious?
Do Platyhelminthes reproduce asexually or sexually?
How do Platyhelminthes asexually reproduce?
Transverse fission or regeneration
What are the 2 methods of sexual reproduction in Platyhelminthes?
Mutual cross fertilization (each donating sperm)
Hypodermic impregnation (inaccurate stabbing)
What type of cleavage do Platyhelminthes undergo in development?
Where does mesoderm arise from in Platyhelminthes during development?
From mesentoblast (single cell) in stereoblastula
How does gastrulation occur in Platyhelminthes development?
By epiboly of stereogastrula
What is the Platyhelminthes larva called? Is it planktotrophic or lecithotrophic?
Muller's Larva
What are the 2 suckers on Monogenea called?
Prohaptor & Opishaptor (with hooks)
What are the 2 suckers on Trematoda called?
Oral and ventral
What is the difference in the GVC opening in Monogenea vs Trematoda?
Monogenea: on ventral side
Trematoda: in oral sucker
What are the 2 larval stages in Trematoda and where would you find them?
Miracidium larva (in snail - primary intermediate - asexual reproduction)
Cercaria larva (free swimming)
What are the segments in Cestoda called?
Describe the scolex (Cestoda)

Rostellum (hooks at end)

4 suckers

Synapomorphies of Mollusca (5)
1. Mantle & mantle cavity
2. Shell glands
3. Radula ("teeth")
4. Muscular foot
5. 3-chambered heart
What are the 7 classes of Mollusca?
1. Aplacophora (no shell)
2. Monoplacophora (1 shell, fossils)
3. Polyplacophora (7-8 shells, chitons)
4. Scaphopoda (tusk shells)
5. Gastropoda (snails, slugs)
6. Bivalvia (mussels, claims)
7. Cephalopoda (octopus, squids)
What is the name for the structure that forms when the mantle in a Mollusc is rolled into a spiral?
Do protostomes or deuterostomes have a solid blastula?
Do protostomes or deuterostomes have a blastocoel?
Do protostomes or deuterostomes have spiral cleavage?
Deuterostomes undergo gastrulation by which process?
What is the difference between how the archenteron is formed in protostomes vs deuterostomes?
Deuterostomes: invagination
Protostomes: epiboly
Protostomes undergo gastrulation by which process?
Schizocoely (mesoderm arises from hollowing of solid mass)
What does the blastopore become in protostomes vs deuterostomes?
Protostomes: mouth
Deuterostomes: anus
Mesoderm comes from which structure in protostomes vs deuterostomes?
Proto: mesentoblast
Deutero: archenteron