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38 Cards in this Set

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The Lamentation - Giotto, 1305. Arena Chapel, Padua, Italy. Pictorial Revolution


- Jesus has died and is taken off cross
- all have distant facial expression, body is expressive
- lines of gaze focus on the front of the picture
- darker colors in back and lighter in the front 
- bright white figure, set off by darker clothing...



- Jesus has died and is taken off cross


- all have distant facial expression, body is expressive


- lines of gaze focus on the front of the picture


- darker colors in back and lighter in the front


- bright white figure, set off by darker clothing of virgin Mary


- base of front figure has more shading than the top


- overlapping structures/figures


- fresco painting


-emotional scene = depicts human dramas, provokes an emotional response


- rock/landscape has strong compositional diagonal line

Ghent Alterpiece (Closed) - Jan van Eyck, 1432. The Annunciation. Northern European/Netherlandish Art (Flemish)


- has natural lighting from the side - uses real light to make it look more believable 
- Angel Gabriel telling Mary she is to bear a child, sibyls and prophets foretelling the story. Patrons on the bottom praying to specific saints
- Monochromat...



- has natural lighting from the side - uses real light to make it look more believable


- Angel Gabriel telling Mary she is to bear a child, sibyls and prophets foretelling the story. Patrons on the bottom praying to specific saints


- Monochromatic/limited palate


- Portrait of Mary: holy spirit rendered as a dove above head, reading and praying because she is very pious, can see all the details and folds in robe because of oil paint, hair has distinctive texture, words written backwards


- Angel: bears lilies (symbol of Mary) denoting purity, has jewels, believable rendering of robes


Symbolic homey details, such as washbasin, pot and white towel


- takes place in modern day Ghent


- Patron is very naturalistic, red woolen robe and fur color

Ghent Alterpiece (open) - Jan van Eyck, 1432. The Adoration of the Lamb. Northern European/Netherlandish Art (Flemish)


- lower register one continuous landscape, while top is divided into different scenes
- lamb is symbolic representation of Christ
- draws attention to center using light, color (white in the middle surrounded by dark and middle colors), compositi...



- lower register one continuous landscape, while top is divided into different scenes


- lamb is symbolic representation of Christ


- draws attention to center using light, color (white in the middle surrounded by dark and middle colors), composition = exactly in the center, everyone is facing the center


- shows spatial recession (how space recedes) using perspective (objects are smaller as they go back in space) Atmospheric/aerial perspective - warm colors in foreground, cooler as you back in space with objects less detailed


- lots of flowering trees and plants that would not have been blooming at the time - it is paradise, celebration of nature (also artistic virtuousity)


- deity has hand raised in blessing, lap looks like it is coming forward in space from light and drapery, jewewls - able to paint the way they capture the light


- Models have less idealized bodies than Ancient Greece and Rome, look more normal

Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride - Jan van Eyck, 1434. Northern European/Netherlandish Art (Flemish)

- secular image with a lot of religious symbolism, lighting from left side of canvas because of left window in picture
- dog represents fidelity
- ideal female figure - small top and round, swelled stomach area 
- shows prestige by wearing elabora...



- secular image with a lot of religious symbolism, lighting from left side of canvas because of left window in picture


- dog represents fidelity


- ideal female figure - small top and round, swelled stomach area


- shows prestige by wearing elaborate textile - dress is very long, has to be lifted up, blue underdress


- shoes on left and background are traditional gift to bride in Northern Europe, meant to suggest that they were taken off because couple is on holy ground


- mirror with religious imagery around it, in the mirror = backs of the couple and the artist, above says he was here - witness to the event. Makes one think about position of viewer and artist in relation to subject

The Tribute Money - Masaccio, Fresco in Brancacci Chapel, 1425-1427. Early Italian Renaissance


- Life of St. Peter in three different scenes. Tax collector comes asking for taxes, but do not have  money because gave up all worldly possessions. Jesus tells Peter to catch fish and they find coins in fish
- Creation of Space through overlappi...



- Life of St. Peter in three different scenes. Tax collector comes asking for taxes, but do not have money because gave up all worldly possessions. Jesus tells Peter to catch fish and they find coins in fish


- Creation of Space through overlapping, smaller as go back, shadows on the ground (each figure has a shadow). Linear perspective - vanishing point as Jesus's head, everything goes toward there. More detailed figures in foreground


semicircular figure grouping around Christ


- Tax collector doesn't have halo, back is toward viewer, typical Florentine dress, standing in contrapposto


- Psychological interaction


- thinks of halos as real objects = shifts according to the different angels


- light from a source outside the picture = light has its own nature and used in different intensities and directions


- figures have real sense of volume and shape

Gates of Paradise (Adam and Eve, Isaac and His Sons) - Lorenzo Ghiberti, Florence Baptistry, 1425-1452


- five panels on each side, made of cast bronze which was then gilded. Very plain large squares, decorative borders
Isaac and His Sons - Low relief is Rebekah in the background giving birth with attending women in the foreground. Esau getting rea...



- five panels on each side, made of cast bronze which was then gilded. Very plain large squares, decorative borders


Isaac and His Sons - Low relief is Rebekah in the background giving birth with attending women in the foreground. Esau getting ready to hunt and Jacob receiving the blessing. Use of mathematical/linear perspective = using a series of proportions and ratios, can define how things go back in space, arches and tiles get mathematically smaller. Horizon line - everything vanishes toward vanishing point. Orthogonal and transversals. Arches to separate different scenes.

The Last Supper - Leonardo da Vinci, 1495-1498, High Renaissance.


- mixed oil paint and plaster --> painting flaked off. 
- commissioned for monastery dining hall
shows part of life ofChrist in new way - new level of psychological tension
- no one has a halo - more natural, window behind Christ serves as sort o...



- mixed oil paint and plaster --> painting flaked off.


- commissioned for monastery dining hall


shows part of life ofChrist in new way - new level of psychological tension


- no one has a halo - more natural, window behind Christ serves as sort of halo.


- All of the lines lead to vanishing point behind head. Only one figure sitting frontally, pyramid composition


- table is in foreground, figures and table take up lower half, divided composition


- grouped in numbers of three, Jesus spaced from everyone else

The School of Athens - Raphael, 1510 - 1511. High Renaissance


- worked for the Pope, wanted frescos to fit into the space, really depict learning. Brings together philosophers from a number of different eras, philosophic worlds = wants to show modern Rome as interior of Athens legacy. Tries to show that mod...



- worked for the Pope, wanted frescos to fit into the space, really depict learning. Brings together philosophers from a number of different eras, philosophic worlds = wants to show modern Rome as interior of Athens legacy. Tries to show that modern Christians can make this less pagan


- At center, Plato (older) and Aristotle (younger). Plato point upward, spirit is source of knowledge, while Aristotle - gesturing toward earth, observation is source of knowledge.


- Focused in on the center, arches decrease in size towards middle, Plato and Aristotle in their own arch


- references to ancient styles of clothing, classical looking structures, standing in contrapposto, arches, pendentives and suggested dome


- mathematical formula for decrease in size. Vanishing point at center of heads. Believabel send of spatial recession


- includes self portrait, looking out at audience

The Conversion of St. Paul - Caravaggio, c. 1601. Italian/Southern Baroque


got off horse, struck by belief and converted to Christianity
Strong contrast between light and dark - sense of drama
no background details to take away from story - very focused and clear, no distractions
draws attention to St. Paul - open arms,...



got off horse, struck by belief and converted to Christianity


Strong contrast between light and dark - sense of drama


no background details to take away from story - very focused and clear, no distractions


draws attention to St. Paul - open arms, "spotlight" on lightest part, his neck


brings divine into the real world - doesn't look idealized or separate, happening in real life


Foreshortening - body looks like it is coming out of the painting


Alterpiece


sense of immediacy - figure is in front, in foreground


background of dark, limited palette, burst of color in foreground

Ecstasy of Saint Theresa - Gianlorenzo Bernini, 1645-1652. Italian/Southern Baroque.


- St. Theresa - known for ecstatic vision, wrote a spiritual biography
- shapes rock to look like different textures, made of marble
- wrote in very graphic terms about vision - pierced by angel's arrow
- barely see body at all = looks incorporea...



- St. Theresa - known for ecstatic vision, wrote a spiritual biography


- shapes rock to look like different textures, made of marble


- wrote in very graphic terms about vision - pierced by angel's arrow


- barely see body at all = looks incorporeal, as though only a spirit


- gilded bronze to look like heaven. Natural light coming down


-creates powerful, emotional experience for audience with drama of spiritual event, still realistic

The Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq (Night Watch) - Rembrandt van Rijn. 1642.Dutch/Northern Baroque


- assembling for a parade
- different colors/light 
- mysterisou figure of girl with chicken - unclear symbolism
- draws attention to frontmost figures - lightest figure and red sash
- turns this into scene from everyday life
- patron was the mi...



- assembling for a parade


- different colors/light


- mysterisou figure of girl with chicken - unclear symbolism


- draws attention to frontmost figures - lightest figure and red sash


- turns this into scene from everyday life


- patron was the militia group


- use of foreshortening of arm


- shows a lot of activity

View of Haarlem from the Dunes at Overveen - Jacob van Ruisdael. 1670. Dutch/Northern Baroque.


- Church that people would recognize
- foreground are areas that are bleached by the sun
- calm and peaceful
- long almost unbroken horizontal horizon line - looks as landscape could continue on 
- patterns of light on different areas
- alternat...



- Church that people would recognize


- foreground are areas that are bleached by the sun


- calm and peaceful


- long almost unbroken horizontal horizon line - looks as landscape could continue on


- patterns of light on different areas


- alternating between light and dark to see spatial recession


- landscape shows bleaching of white clothes - productivity of people who live there


- range of colors/palette very simple (limited) to just colors of natural environment

Pilgrimage to Cythera - Antoine Wattteau. 1717. Rococo

- used to get into the academy, didn't fit into any of the categories so they mad e anew one for him. 
- typifies the pleasurable, lightly romantic subject matter that the patrons liked. 
- Cythera was a mythical island Venus ruled
- fashionabl...

- used to get into the academy, didn't fit into any of the categories so they mad e anew one for him.


- typifies the pleasurable, lightly romantic subject matter that the patrons liked.


- Cythera was a mythical island Venus ruled


- fashionable, young people, depicted in modern style of dress


- Statue of Venus


- creates a sense of space by pale colors, aerial/atmospheric perspective


- brushwork is not very clear, curved lines and soft shapes - relates back to interweaving of reality and fantasy, relaxing/pleasant

Oath of the Horatii - Jacques-Louis David, 1784.


Neoclassicism.

- Horatii = orates family, father is calling sons to take a vow that they will defend Rome against an invading rival family. Women in the sides = wives and daughters, one of the rival family
- colors are not pastel, they are serious, dark bold, c...

- Horatii = orates family, father is calling sons to take a vow that they will defend Rome against an invading rival family. Women in the sides = wives and daughters, one of the rival family


- colors are not pastel, they are serious, dark bold, colors, earth tones


- Dramatic emotion, sense of rightfulness, warning


- Roman-style arches and references


- lots of emphasis of athletic figure


- vey true historically based on archeology at the time


- architecture organizes figures into three groups = very c;ear and rational


- men in foreground, women in background


- frieze composition = people lined up in one plane, not going back into the composition


- line of gestures draws eye to the swords and the moment of the vow


- lots of straight lines, diagonals, all moving to vow = really emphasizes male, moral virtue, patriotic seen as an example


- with the women, drooping curved lines, emotional. contrast to civic virtue of men. Emotions - weakness

The Raft of the Medusa - Theodore Gericault, 1818-1819. Romanticism

- originally called the shipwreck, but really about historical events = ship called the Medusa, bringing colonists to Madagascar, captain was not competent. 
- distant ship on the horizon - hoping to be saved
- lots of diagonal lines that are no...

- originally called the shipwreck, but really about historical events = ship called the Medusa, bringing colonists to Madagascar, captain was not competent.


- distant ship on the horizon - hoping to be saved


- lots of diagonal lines that are not rigid - sense of movement, adds to drama


- drawn to upper right hand corner, eyes move down to bottom left (or other way around)


- pyramid compostioin


- strong contrasts of dark and light - no spotlight. dark colors


- canvas had darkened over time - were experimenting with integrating bitumen (tar-like substance into paint, makes darker and gets darker over time)


- very ambiguous = take out idea of moral clarity, not clear what will happen. Painting of romantic era reflect ambiguity


- lot of emphasis on male nude figure


- contemporary subject, portrayed as history subject because of size

The Stone Breakers - Gustave Courbet, 1849. Realism

- difficult employment, humble work. 
- uses restrained palette = not a lot of colors
- figures are anonymous - do not see faces
- limbs are rigid - mechanical
- blend into the background, horizon line is above them = not a powerful picture, app...

- difficult employment, humble work.


- uses restrained palette = not a lot of colors


- figures are anonymous - do not see faces


- limbs are rigid - mechanical


- blend into the background, horizon line is above them = not a powerful picture, appears to be at the bottom of a hill, cut off from openness


- shown in ragged, unflattering clothing


- black lines - flattens figures, mimics folk art of the time

Impression: Sunrise - Claude Money, 1872.


Impresionism

-Sense of a horizon line, boats in the water
- Impasto paint = thickened brushstrokes (invisble brushwork makes viewer think only about subject, visible keeps viewer looking at canvas)
- exhibited as first impressionist exhibition - didn't think ...

-Sense of a horizon line, boats in the water


- Impasto paint = thickened brushstrokes (invisble brushwork makes viewer think only about subject, visible keeps viewer looking at canvas)


- exhibited as first impressionist exhibition - didn't think it looked finished


- boat almost looks like calligraphy


- doesn't show space properly, doesn't use proper aerial perspective = no change from warmer to cooler, things in foreground are not clear


- abstraction = nothing is really defined

Woman with a Hat - Henri Matisse, 1905. Early 20th century abstraction (Fauvism)

- portrait of his wife, traditional subject
- very bold = use of colors that are not descriptive, messy brushwork that expresses emotion
- "entering a cage of wild beasts" - fauve = wild beast 
- appears she is turning around in chair, hard to u...

- portrait of his wife, traditional subject


- very bold = use of colors that are not descriptive, messy brushwork that expresses emotion


- "entering a cage of wild beasts" - fauve = wild beast


- appears she is turning around in chair, hard to understand what's happening. Psychology of perception - viewer has to work to try and understand what painting looks like


- messy scrawl = releasing something inside of self, freedom of expression


Les Demoiselles d' Avignon - Pablo Picasso, 1907. Early 20th century abstraction (Cubism)

- Reuses non-European art, uses geometric forms to create a new way of expressing the human body and showing forms in space
- depicts five women in an interior space, pretty clearly alluding to prostitutes in a brothel
- "chose of Hercules" = sin...

- Reuses non-European art, uses geometric forms to create a new way of expressing the human body and showing forms in space


- depicts five women in an interior space, pretty clearly alluding to prostitutes in a brothel


- "chose of Hercules" = sin or virtue


- has to do with syphilis, disease that affect middle class men who went to see prostitutes. Response to fear/anxiety in society


- used African masks to make the women look threatening and evil, that they were spreading this disease. Masks were very little understood at the time - very fascinating.


-kept the idea from drawing of pushing curtain aside


- sense of volume with the bodies, but not traditional. lines give a suggestion of modeling, shading doesn't really give a sense of volume


- all of the figures are in the foreground, staring at the viewer with frontal eye

Composition with Red, Blue, and Yellow - Piet Mondrian, 1930. Abstraction

- two neutral colors, simple primary colors, nothing blended = reducing the painting down to its most basic form
- very simple lines = vertical and horizontal
- by simplifying and reducing visual language, purifies society
- early 20th century ab...

- two neutral colors, simple primary colors, nothing blended = reducing the painting down to its most basic form


- very simple lines = vertical and horizontal


- by simplifying and reducing visual language, purifies society


- early 20th century abstraction


- cleansing for society

Number 1, 1950 (Lavender Mist) - Jackson Pollack, Abstraction.

- abstract expressionism
- painted after WW2, lot of European artists came to NY. New ideas about the unconscious, the way art can express something about a person
- put canvas on the ground and splatter paint on the canvas. Used industrial and h...

- abstract expressionism


- painted after WW2, lot of European artists came to NY. New ideas about the unconscious, the way art can express something about a person


- put canvas on the ground and splatter paint on the canvas. Used industrial and house paints, would sometimes include different materials


- perceived as promoting American freedom


- supposed to be expression of his unconscious - didn't want it to look like something


- would strategically place the paint (gesture waiting - based on the way the painting is made)


- paint globs on, doesn't look flat

Vietnam Veterans Memorial - Maya Lin, Washington D.C., 1981 - 1983. Environmentalism and Minimalism

- Vietnam war lasted from 1969 - 1975, very contested


- should not be expressly political, reflective and contemplative, include names of dead and missing, and in harmony with surrounding environment


- few names listed on black granite, experience take time to unfold, wall rises up above viewer


- released into nature, made to fit into the curve


call attention to the contours of the land


- gash in the hillside = gash in the national memory, antiheroic, no figure associated with it


- how to create monument of something so controversial = abstraction so people could interpret it themselves


- cleanses all of the conflicted ideas, allows for meditative pace. uses minimalism to create a space for healing. allows for secular communal worship

The Pictorial Revolution

- set in the 1300-1400


- Italy wasn't united, comprised of different areas


- psychological interaction between subjects, they look each other. Drama and emotional realism


- utilizes various methods to create a sense of depth, real sense of volume and weight

Northern European/Netherlandish Art

- set in 1430s


- Duchy of Burgundy ruled by Duke, upper portion = Flanders. Lots of industry and trade. Emergence of large middle class - begin to see art patronage by middle class.


- use of oil paint --> finely realistic depictions of surfaces


- very believable rendering of natural light = uses light of outside or light in picture to create real sense of depth


- symbolic homey details, with religious significance


- less idealized bodies

Early Italian Renaissance

- 1420 -1450s


- Humanism, emphasis on human education, talent, knowledge. Stressed morality, public responsibility.


- mathematical/linear perspective = using a series of proportions and ratios, can define how things go back in space. Arches and tiles get mathematically smaller


- horizon line - everything recedes back toward vanishing point


- psychological interaction


- 3D halos

High Renaissance

- 1490-1500s


- Most famous artists, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo, mastered techniques developed beforehand. Art is now seen and intellectual activity, instead of just a craft.


- mix of oil and plaster - paint flaked off


- new level of psychological tension


- everyone looks more natural


- sfumato = smoky/hazy that creates mysterious effect


- very real mathematical perspective


- use of pyramid composition


- Classical architecture

Italian/Southern Baroque

- 1600 - 1650s


- Paintings have a lot of dramas to them - there is the counter reformation in the south. Use images to reach out and grab viewer.


- Strong contrast between light and dark


- Use of foreshortening = object looks like it is reaching out of painting by making it smaller than real-life


- sense of immediacy


- dark background


- very realistic/naturalistic

Dutch/Northern Baroque

- 1630-1670


- Protestant Reformation, iconoclasm. Patronage of art totally changed - new subjects: a) portraits b) landscapes c) scenes from everyday life (still life as well)


- able to show large groups in one scene - lots of movement


- use of different colors/light to create sense of space


- use of perspective to create depth


- pattern of alternating light and dark

Rococo

- 1700-1750


- paintings wer integrated into the architecture. Made for patrons - very light and amusing, slightly erotic. Lots of narrow, curving lines that weave in and out


- interweaving of reality and fantasy


- not clear sense of space


- putti - winged babies


- Had to make a new category in the academy because none existed

Neoclassicism

- 1780s


- response to Rococo, wanted to go back to real Classical art, provide examples of virtue, comes out of the Enlightenment


- dramatic emotion


- Roman style architecture


- lots of straight lines, emphasizing morals


- very bold, clear colors


- evenly lit


- frieze composition = everything is in foreground

Romanticism

- 1800s - 1820


- Napoleonic Europe, strong emotions and not always positive. sometimes dark, negative and irrational. Often focused on dark side of human psyche


- strong contrasts between light and dark


- very ambiguous = takes out idea of moral clarity


- very realistic.


- experiments integrating bitumen - darker colors

Realism

- 1840-1850


- movement that grew out of Romanticism, tended to paint subjects of everyday life. Response to political situation at the time - series of revolutions across Europe


- very rigid


- restrained palette


- blend into the background


- black lines to flatten the figures

Impressionism

- 1870 - 1900/1910


- paints were sold in tubes


- decided to break away from official art exhibitions, age of industrialization


- imposto paint = very visible. causes viewer to look at canvas


- doesn't show depth normally

Early 20th century Abstraction - Fauvism

- 1900-1920s


- deals with issues of modern life, questioning how art is made. Also, artists dealing with colonialism, wanting to get out of the city


- very bold, non descriptive colors


- messy brushwork - freedom of expression


- psychology of perception = viewers has to work to understand what painting looks like

Early 20th century Abstraction - Cubism

- 1900 - 1920s


- resuses non-European art


- use geometric forms to create a new way of expressing the human body and showing forms in space


- nontraditional sense of space


- subjects are still life/portrait

Abstraction

- 1920-1950s


- minimalistic


- bright colors


- a lot of urbanization and modernization, yet new technology is used to kill. This new style is meant to be utopian, purified and distances itself from the negative aspects of society. Wanted to cleanse society of war.


- expressing the unconscious though art



Late 20th Century Art - Environmental Art

- made to fit into controls of the land


- released into nature


- dialogue between natural and man-made


- fond in nature


- call attention to the landscape and nature

Late 20th Century Art - Minimalism

- simple, often repeated shapes


- usually designed but not excited by artists


- doesn't want viewer to think about how it was made or see the hand of the artist


- clean space for meditation or personal reflection


- based on interpretation of the viewer