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108 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

European Union

A political and economic community consisting of 28 member states.
The process of social, political, economic, cultural, and technological integration among countries around the world
International Management
Process of applying management concepts and techniques in a multinational environment and adapting management practices to different economic, political, and cultural concepts.
The process of completing activities efficiently and effectively with and through other people.
Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI)
A Japanese government agency that identifies and ranks national commercial pursuits and guides the distribution of national resources to meet these goals.
MNC (Multi-national Corporation)
A firm having operations in more than one country, international sales, and a nationality mix among managers and owners.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
A free-trade agreement between the US, Canada, and Mexico that has removed most barriers to trade and investment.
The process by which companies undertake some activities at offshore locations instead of in their countries of origin
The subcontracting or contracting out of activities to external organizations that had previously been performed by the firm.
World Trade Organization (WTO)
The global organization of countries that oversees rules and regulations for international trade and investment.
Explains the variations in human thought processes in different parts of the world
Reflects a sense of superiority. they believe that their ways of doing things are the best, no matter which cultures are involved.
Reflects a belief that being responsive to local cultures and markets is necessary
A social pattern that consists of loosely linked individuals who view themselves as independent of groups who are motivated by their own preferences, needs, rights, and contracts.
A social pattern that consists of closely linked individuals who see themselves as belonging to one or more groups and who are motivated by norms, duties, and obligations identified by these groups.

Institutional Collectivism

Concerned with the degree of identity those individuals have in regardto various institutions, particularly their own work organization.


Pertains to societies in which social gender roles are clearly distinct (i.e. men are supposed to be assertive, tough, and focused)
Pertains to societies in which social gender roles overlap (i.e. both men and women are supposed to be modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life)
Objective Culture
Things such as infrastructure of roads, architecture, patterns of music, food, and dress habits.
The belief that there is no way of doing things other than that found within one’s culture, that is, there is no better alternative.
Power Distance
The extent to which the less powerful members of institutions andorganizations within a country expect and accept that power is distributedunequally.
Subjective Culture
Components include the ways that people categorize experience, associations, beliefs, attitudes, self-definitions, role definitions, norms, and values. Helps people survive the various demands that are present in an ecological setting since they do not have to reinvent adaptive behaviors, but can imitate them or learn from previous generations.
The use of color to communicate messages
The way in which time is used in a culture
Distributive Negotiations
Bargaining that occurs when two parties with opposing goals compete over a set value
Communicating through the use of bodily contact
Integrative Negotiation
Bargaining that involves cooperation between two groups to integrate interests, create value, and invest in the agreement
The study of communication through body movements and facial expression.
Monochromic Time Schedule
A time schedule in which things are done in a linear fashion. (I.e. manager will address issue A and then move on to issue B)
Bargaining with one or more parties for the purpose of arriving at a solution acceptable to all
Nonverbal Communication
The transfer of meaning through means such as body language and the use of physical space.
The area of communication that deals with conveying messages through the use of eye contact and gaze
Polychromic Time Schedule
A time schedule in which people tend to do several things at the same time and place higher value on personal involvement than on getting things done on time
A special quality of interpersonal influence that some leaders possess and that enables their followers to develop respect and trust for their leader.
Extrinsic Factor
Concerned with the context of the workplace, such as the level of pay, working conditions, and fringe benefits
Global Leadership
Inquiring mind, integrity, the ability to manage uncertainty and tensions, and emotional connections with people throughout the company’s worldwide operation
Implicit Perspective
Focuses on the way subordinates perceive a leader
Intrinsic Factor
Concerned with opportunity for personal growth, development, and advancement, and they deal with the quality of work being performed.
Meaning of Working (MOW) Study
This study examined what working means to people in Japan, Yugoslavia, Israel, United States, Belgium, the Netherlands, Britain, and Germany
The amount of effort that an employee is willing to put into work to accomplish an organizationally valued task
Nurturant Leadership (India)
Taking a personal interest in the well-being of each subordinate.
Role Ambiguity
Unclear expectations about how to perform the job
Role Overload
Excessive work
Sheikocracy (Arab World)
This style reflects and emphasis on hierarchical authority, personal connections, human relations, and conformity to rules and regulations based on the personality and power of those who made the rules.
Transformational Leadership
Focuses on the process of a leader using his or her charisma to inspire followers to go beyond their immediate self-interests for the good of the work group and the organization
Act of State Doctrine
All acts of other governments are considered to be valid by the U.S. courts, even if such acts are inappropriate in the United States.
The political philosophy that views the needs or goals of society as a whole as more important than individual desires
A political system in which the government is controlled by the citizens either directly or through elections
Doctrine of Comity
Holds that there must be a mutual respect for the laws, institutions, and governments of other countries in the matter of jurisdiction over their own citizens.
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA)
An act that makes it illegal to influence foreign officials through personal payment or political contributions
The political philosophy that people should be free to pursue economic and political endeavors without constraint
Nationality Principle
A jurisdictional principle of international law, which holds that every country has jurisdiction over its citizens no matter where they are located.
Principle of Sovereignty
An international principle of law, which holds that governments have the right to rule themselves as they see fit.
Protective Principle
Holds that every country has jurisdiction over behavior that adversely affects its national security, even if that conduct occurred outside of the country.
A moderate form of collectivism in which there is government ownership of institutions, and profit is not the ultimate goal.
Territoriality Principle
Holds that every nation has the right of jurisdiction within its legal territory.
A political system in which there is only one representative party, which exhibits control over every facet of political and human life.
Complex Integration Strategy
International companies are transforming their geographically dispersed affiliates and fragmented production, financial, and marketing systems into functionally integrated regional or global networks.
Establishing offshore assembly and manufacturing sites in Asia to lower their own production costs (United States).
Represents an extreme orientation. These individuals look upon everything that originates from an organization’s home country as the best in the world.
A world-oriented attitude, with no predisposition regarding degree of control or centralization
Global Orientation
A firm’s position in one competitive market is significantly affected by its competitive position in other markets
Thinking globally but acting locally
• Government and Political Forces

• Market Forces

• Technological Forces

• Competitive Forces

Multi-domestic Orientation
A company whose top management appreciates the importance of foreign operations to its overall profitability and competitive strength.
Is an orientation that assumes countries have vast differences in their economic, political, and legal systems deriving from language, culture, and race
Simple-Integration Strategy
The integration of a few activities in the value chain among some or all affiliates of an international company
Stand-Alone Strategy
Each foreign affiliate is responsible for the performance of almost all required activities in the value chain in the host country.
Transnational Orientation
Companies attempt to balance the need to be responsive to host-country markets through adaptation of the product, marketing strategies, and management practices to suit local conditions with the need to obtain goal efficiency by linking and coordinating the dispersed operations.
A management system in which important decisions are made at the top.
Pushing decision making down the line and getting the lower-level personnel involved.
The use of defined structures and systems in decision making, communicating, and controlling.
Global Area Division
A structure under which global operations are organized on a geographic rather than on a product basis
Global Function Division
A structure that organizes worldwide operations primarily based on function and secondarily on product
Global Product Division
A structural arrangement in which domestic divisions are given worldwide responsibility for product groups
Horizontal Specialization
The assignments of jobs so that individuals are given a particular function to perform and tend to stay within the confines of this area.
International Division Structure
A structural arrangement that handles all international operations out of a division created for this purpose
Joint Venture (JV)
An agreement under which two or more partners own or control a business.
An agreement that allows one party to use an industrial property right in exchange for payment to the owning party
The cross-border purchase or exchange of equity involving two or more companies
Mixed Organization Structure
A structure that is a combination of global product, area, or functional arrangement
An organizational characteristic that assigns individuals to specific, well-defined tasks
Transnational Network Structure
A multinational structural arrangement that combines elements of function, product, and geographic designs, while relying on a network arrangement to link worldwide subsidiaries
Vertical Specialization
The assignment of work to groups or departments where individuals are collectively responsible for performance
Wholly Owned Subsidiary
An overseas operation that is totally owned and controlled by an MNC.
Balance-Sheet Approach
An approach to developing an expatriate compensation package that ensures the expat is “made whole” and does not lose money by taking the assignment
Cafeteria Approach
An approach to developing an expatriate compensation package that entails giving the individual a series of options and letting the person decide how to spend the funds available
Ethnocentric MNC
An MNC that stresses nationalism and often puts home-office people in charge of key international management positions.
The belief that one’s own way of doing things is superior to that of others.
Managers who live and work outside their home country. They are citizens of the country where the multinational corporation is headquartered.
Geocentric MNC
An MNC that seeks to integrate diverse regions of the world through a global approach to decision making.
Home – Country Nationals
Expatriate managers who are citizens of the country where the multinational corporation is headquartered
Host – Country Nationals
Local managers who are hired by MNC.
Individuals from a host country or third-country nationals who are assigned to work in the home country
An approach to developing an expatriate compensation package that involves paying the expat salary comparable to that of local nationals.
Lump-Sum Method
An approach to developing an expatriate compensation package that involves getting that expat a predetermined amount of money and letting the individual make his or her own decisions regarding how to spend it.
Polycentric MNC
An MNC that places local nationals in key positions and allows these managers to appoint and develop their own people
Regiocentric MNC
An MNC that relies on local managers from a particular geographic region to handle operations in and around that area
Regional System
An approach to developing an expatriate compensation package that involves setting a compensation system for all expats who are assigned to a particular region and paying everyone in accord with that system.
The return to one’s home country from an overseas management assignment
Repartition Agreements
Agreements whereby the firm tells an individual how long he or she will be posted overseas and promises to give the individual, on return, a job that is mutually acceptable
Third-Country Nationals (TCNs)
Managers who are citizens of countries other than the country in which the MNC is headquartered or the one in which they are assigned to work by the MNC
Transition Strategies
Strategies used to help smooth the adjustment from an overseas to a stateside assignment
Corporate Governance
The system by which business corporations are directed and controlled.
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
The actions of a firm to benefit society beyond the requirements of the law and the direct interests of the firm.
Fair Trade
An organized social movement and market based approach that aims to help producers in developing countries obtain better trading conditions and promote sustainability
Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs)
Private, not-for-profit organizations that seek to serve society’s interests by focusing on social, political, and economic issues such as poverty, social justice, education, health, and the environment.
Development that meets current needs without harming the future.