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25 Cards in this Set

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What are two types of circulatory systems?



Open System: They are the first developed system.


Found in crayfish, starfish and insects


Blood is not confined to the blood vessels; pumped directly into the body cavities


Low blood pressure system.




Closed System: Found in mammals and fish.


Blood is confined to blood vessels at all times


Exchange of O2/CO2nutrients is across capillary beds.


High pressure systems.



Advantages and Disadvantages to Open System

Advantages: Does not need a lot of energy




Disadvantages: Can't Cant control blood velocity


Have a slow metabolic rate

Advantages and Disadvantage to Closed System

Advantages: Cells are 2-3 cells away from the capillary.


Controls blood velocity and where blood travels in the body.


Blood can be filtered.


Only closed systems have a lymphatic system.




Disadvantages: Requires a lot of energy


very complex so it is not available to all organisms.

What are the three types of hearts?

1. TWO CHAMBERED: oxygenated and deoxygenated blood mix in both the atrium and ventricle (e.g.. fish)




2. THREE CHAMBERED: oxygenated blood from one atrium mixes with deoxygenated blood from the other in the common ventricle (eg. reptile)




3. FOUR CHAMBERED: oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood are kept separate so that the blood is fully oxygenated (e.g.. mammals, birds)

Explain why an open system is well suited for the metabolic needs for an insect.

An insect is small meaning that it has a low metabolic rate so it doesn't need to have a system of blood enclosed in vessels.




Cold blooded creatures have low metabolic rates therefore the open system is sufficient for them.

Name the five types of transport vessels. Where does gas and nutrient exchange occur?

Artery, arteriole, capillary, venues and veins.




Gas and nutrient exchange takes place in the capillaries.

Which transport vessels contain oxygenated and which contains deoxygenated blood?

Oxygenated: Artery, arteride, capillary.




Deoxygenated: Venues, veins, capillaries

Name the components of blood and their functions.

Red Blood Cells carry oxygen (and to a small extent CO2)


White Blood Cells fight infections and kill bacteria.


Platelets clump together to repair wounds to the vessels.

Explain how the structure of blood cells helps their function.

Red Blood Cells: are a biconcave shape to increase surface area for the absorption of oxygen, they contain no nuclear so they have more room for oxygen.




White Blood Cells: are round and have a nucleus since they need to have info. contained in them in order to replicate and retain a memory of infections that were fought.

How is oxygen and CO2 transported in blood and why can they go in and out of cells?

Oxygen is transported in red blood cells bound to hemoglobin. CO2 dissolves to become carbonic acid and hydrogen and is transported in the plasma.




They both enter by Passive Diffusion: going form areas of high to low concentration, for example form the lungs to an area in need.

Where does the heart beat start?

Sinoatrial node.

What is n ECG and what are its components?

Electrocardiogram: tests for electrical activity problems with the heart.





ECG patterns:

P wave (trial depolarization- when atria contract)




QRS wave (ventricular depolarization- when ventricles contract)




T wave (electrical repolarization- as the ventricles recover from the activity)

Can an ECG provide information about a persons cardiac output?

yes, it can tell how many beats/sec. a person has, if their artery or ventricles are contracting irregularly or if the heart is failing to repolarize.

What is systolic and Diastolic pressure?

systolic pressure: measures the pressure exerted by the blood when the ventricles contract.




Diastolic: measures the pressures the pressure exerted by the blood when the ventricles are NOT contracting.

What is the basic requirement for gas exchange met by all gas exchange surfaces?

They must be coated with water.

What is tidal volume?

The normal volume of air when one normally inhales and exhales.

What is inspiratory reserve volume?

The volume of additional air that is forcibly inhaled.

What is expiratory reserve volume?

The volume of additional air that can forcibly be exhaled.



What is Vital capacity?

The greatest amount of air that can be exhaled from the lungs after taking the deepest breath possible.

Explain how air flows in and out of your lungs.

Inhalation: The ribs move up and out while the diaphragm moves down. Volume of the lungs is increased and pressure is decreases. Air flows into the lungs to equalize the pressure.




Exhalation: The ribs move down and in, while the diaphragm moves up. This is a result of muscle relaxation. The volume in the lungs decreases and the pressure decreases. Air flows out of the lungs to equalize pressure.

List in order the organs of the digestive tract through which food passes and which enzymes are present at each stage.

Mouth: amalyze acts to break down starch and sucrose.


Stomach: HCl activate pepsin to break down proteins.


Small Intestine: Bile breaks down amino acids.


Large Intestine: no enzymes, water is absorbed and bacteria make vitamins.

What is the purpose of the villi and microvilli?


Where are they located?

They increase the surface area for absorption of nutrients and are located in the small intestine.

A person has their gallbladder removed. Which kinds of food should they avoid eating and why?

The gallbladder releases bile which emulsifies fats. If a gallbladder is removed the body will have difficulty digesting fats so people should avoid eating excess fats.

Name two reasons why it is important to have the stomach be so acidic.

1) the acidity kills bacteria


2) it activates pepsinogen to pepsin