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48 Cards in this Set

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Intelligence

the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use our knowledge to adapt to new situations.

Controversies about Intelligence

(1) is intelligence a single overall ability or several specific abilities? (2) can we locate and measure intelligence within the brain?

General Intelligence (g)

Charles Spearman; helped in development of factor analysis approach in statistics and linked to many clusters.

Howard Gardner

proposes eight types of intelligence and an additional, existential intelligence.

Existential Intelligence

the ability to think about the question of life, death, and existence.

Types of Intelligences

(1) linguistic; (2) logical-mathematical; (3) musical; (4) spatial; (5) bodily-kinesthetic; (6) intrapersonal (self); (7) interpersonal (others); (8) naturalist.

Robert Sternberg

agrees with Gardner; suggests three intelligence instead.

Sternberg's Intelligence

(1) analytical intelligence; (2) creative intelligence; (3) practical intelligence.

Analytical Intelligence

intelligence that is assessed by intelligence tests.

Creative Intelligence

intelligence that makes us adapt to novel situations, generating novel ideas.

Practical Intelligence

intelligence that is required for everyday tasks (e.g. street smarts).

Emotional Intelligence

the ability to perceive emotions, understand emotions, and use emotions.

Components of Emotional Intelligence

perceive emotion - recognize emotions in faces, music, and stories; understand emotion - predict emotions, how they change and blend; manage emotion - express emotions in different situations; use emotion - utilize emotions to adapt or be creative.

Managing Emotion

conveying different emotions through voices; anger, disgust, fear, and sadness.

Anger

low pitch, high intensity, more energy.

Disgust

low, downward directed pitch, with energy.

Fear

high pitch, little variation, low energy, fast speech rate with more pauses.

Sadness

high pitch, less intensity, more vocal energy, longer duration with more pauses.

Voices

competence and aloofness.

Creativity

the ability to produce ideas that are novel and valuable; correlates somewhat with intelligence.

Creativity (2)

builds on knowledge and goes beyond current knowledge.

Categorical Accessibility

the ability to access relatively inaccessible knowledge is an indication of creativity.

Promote Creativity?

creative expansion.

Intelligence Neurologically Measurable?

Size and speed.

Perceptual Speed

people who score high on intelligence tests perceive stimuli faster, retrieve information from memory quickly, and show faster brain response times.

Neurological Speed

people who process perceptual information faster also tend to have faster also tend to have faster brain wave activity, and with greater complexity.

Intelligence Testing

a method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with others using numerical scores.

Alfred Binet

Binet and Theodore Simon; developed questions that would predict children's future progress in the Paris school system.

Lewis Terman

adapted Binet's test for American school children; Stanford-Binet Test (IQ = mental age / chronological age x 100)

David Wechsler

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC).

Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)

an intelligence test for school-aged children.

Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)

measures overall intelligence and eleven other aspects related to intelligence that are designed to assess clinical and educational problems; general information, arithmetic reasoning, and vocabulary.

Principles of Test Construction

standardization, reliability, and validity.

Standardization

administering the test to a representative sample of future test takers in order to establish a basis for meaningful comparison.

Normal Curve

establish a normal distribution of scores on a tested population in a bell-shaped pattern called the normal curve.

Reliability

a test is reliable when it yields consistent results; researchers institute different procedures.

Split-half Reliability

dividing the test into two equal halves and assessing how consistent the scores are.

Test-Retest Reliability

using the same test on two occasions to measure consistency.

Validity

what the rest is supposed to measure or predict.

Content Validity

refers to the extent a test measures a particular behavior or trait.

Predictive Validity

refers to the function of a test in predicting a particular behavior or trait.

High Intelligence

people with high intelligence test scores tend to be healthy, well adjusted, and unusually successful academically.

Intellectually Disabled

required constant supervision before, but with a supportive family environment and special education, and care for themselves.

Flynn Effect

intelligence scores have risen steadily by an average of twenty-seven points.

Genetic Influence

studies of twins, family members, and adopted children together support the idea that there is a significant genetic contribution to intelligence.

Adoption Studies

adopted children show a marginal correlation in verbal ability to their adopted studies.

Early Intervention Effects

early neglect from caregivers leads children to develop a lack of personal control over the environment, and it impoverishes their intelligence.

Schooling Effects

schooling is an experience that pays dividends, which is reflected in intelligence scores. increased schooling correlates with higher intelligence scores.