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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the two most common species of bartonella worldwide

a. B. henselae, B. vinsonii berkhoffi
Which cells are the cells most often infected by bartonella

a. Endothelial cells or CD4+ progenitor cells in bone marrow;can also infected dendritic cells, microglial cells, monocytes, and macrophages
What two virulence factors aid Bartonella

a. Adhesins, and type IV secretion system
What effect does type IV secretion system have on target host cell

a. Transport DNA and effector proteins to the host cell and cause inhibition of host cell apoptosis, bacterial persistence in erythrocytes, and endothelial sprouting
Endocarditis favors which heart valve in what kind of dogs

a. Aortic valve in large breed dogs
What neurologic symptoms can infected animals show

a. Depression, insomnia, mood swings, memory loss, incoordination, muscle spasms, seizures, hallucinations,
What labwork abnormality was significantly associated with bartonella infections in sick dogs

a. Hypoproteinemia
What type of anemia is present in dogs with bartonella and what tests are commonly positive

a. Regenerative anemia and positive Coomb’s and ANA
Why is PCR testing generally not helpful in confirming diagnosis in dogs

a. Maintain low level of parasitemia so PCR can be falsely negative
Why is ELISA or IFA testing also not always helpful

a. If antibody response to an infecting strain is not tested, can get a false-negative result
Which novel testing option has been shown to enhance detection to up to 50%

a. Insect based cell media-> Bartonella alpha-Proteobacteria Growth Medium (BAPGM) allowing organism to grow in mammalian or insect agar and then PCR testing is done to sequence the organism
What two antibiotics have been shown to be most beneficial in dogs

a. Used to be azithromycin but increased resistance now. Recommend doxycycline as monotherapy or in combination to azithromycijn
However, for acute or life threatening infections, use of fluoroquinolone and doxycycline with an aminoglycoside is recommended during initial management
What has been shown more recently to be an effective therapy in cats

a. Pradofloxacin
What conditions in human medicine is bartonellosis associated with

a. Cat-scratch fever, bacillary angiomatosis, bacillary peliosis, relapsing fever with bacteremia, meningitis, encephalitis, neuroretinitis, endocarditis
Which bartonella organism is the only species not considered to be zoonotic from cats

a. B. Quintana
What is the mode of infection from centocephalides felis felis

a. Transmission of flea feces NOT SALIVA
Histopathological examination of infected cats with Bartonella would reveal what

a. Hyperplasia of lymphoid organs, small foci of lymphocytic, pyogranulomatous or neutrophilic inflammation of multiple tissues and small foci of necrosis in the liver or spleen
What ocular condition has bartonella been associated with in cats

a. Uveitis
What other conditions have been associated with bartonellosis

a. Gingivitis, stomatitis, lymphadenopathy, urinary tract disorders, and Hyperglobulinemia
What is the best way to test for bartonellosis in cats

a. Serologic testing combined with blood culture or PCR
Which is better (stronger) for serologic testing, positive predictive value or negative predictive value

a. Negative predictive value (89-97%)
Which antibiotic according to CVT should not be used alone because of growing resistance

a. Rifampin
What is not the best first choice for treating feline bartonellosis

a. Azithromycin
Which class of antibiotics has been shown to be bactericidal for Bartonella

a. Aminoglycosides
What is the preferred first line treatment for ill cats with bartonellosis

a. Doxycycline
What is expressed by borrelia burgdorferi in order to pass into a new host after the tick attaches for 2-4 days

a. Osp-A (outer surface protein)
How does Lyme disease evade host immunity

a. Lives near collagen and fibroblasts, not circulating in blood of fluids
What is the least common type of Sequelae from Lyme disease that affects labs and golden retrievers most commonly>

a. Lyme nephritis
What are the histopathological changes seen in dogs with lyme nephritis

a. Immune-mediated: membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (IMGN), diffuse tubular necrosis and regeneration, and lymphoplasmacytic interstitial nephritis
Dogs with lyme nephritis have what biochemical and clinical manifestations

a. Primary glomerular lesions and secondary tubular involvement: proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hypercholesterolemia, ascites or effusions, thromboembolic events, hypertension, glucosuria, mild to moderate thrombocytopenia
Which serologic test is used most commonly to diagnose natural exposure

a. C6 peptide antibody test (Lyme c6 quant, SNAP 3DX or 4DX)
Which part of the organism is detected

a. VLsE antigen
If lyme disease is suspected of causing clinical signs, what is recommended to do test wise

a. Compare pretreatment and posttreatment C6Quant levels and if declines by 50% or falls below 30 may indicate possible clearance
What is the disadvantage of the IFA or ELISA tests

a. Do not distinguish the vaccine from infection and may also cross react with other spirochetes
What tests are recommended for renal biopsies

a. Immunofluorescence, transmission electron microscopy, and thin section light microscopy
What is the standard treatment recommendations for a dog with Lyme disease

a. Do not treat healthy, nonproteinuric dogs. Dogs that are suspected of having clinical disease should be treated with 30 days of doxycycline
What other treatments are sometimes recommended for dogs with lyme nephritis

a. Standard therapy for PLN –inhibition of Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor such as benazepril or Enalapril (preferentially dilates the efferent artery over the afferent to reduce filtration pressure; calcium channel blockers for hypertension and antithrombotic dose of aspirin
Which immunosuppressive drugs are recommended for dogs with IMGN

a. Mycophenolate, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, chlorambucil
When is it recommended to vaccinate a dog with the lyme vaccine

a. Dogs that are at risk in endemic regions, controversial if it can potentially exacerbate lyme
Name the three retroviruses in cats and what type of virus they belong to

a. Feline syncytium-forming virus is a spumavirus (not virulent)
b. Feline immunodeficiency virus is a lentivirus
c. Feline leukemia virus is an oncornavirus (most pathogenic)
FIV is transmitted how between cats

a. Biting and fighting, therefore not introducing new cats and spaying and neutering is recommended
Is FIV vaccination recommended

a. Not really- can be considered if the positive cat is positive on PCR if not, then not recommended to do the vaccine, can’t distinguish between vaccine and natural infection and there is uncertain crossprotection of the vaccine and subtypes of the virus
Should felv negative cats be vaccinated if there are felv + cats in the household

a. yes, although cannot guarantee that the vaccine will prevent infection, there is an approximate 15% chance that cats will become infected in the household
Should cats with felv or FIV be vaccinated with core vaccines

a. Felv cats should be but FIV cats should not be
Which drug has been shown to cause bone marrow suppression and therefore should be avoided in FIV + cats

a. Griseofulvin; GCC should be avoided in FIV + cats with stomatitis
What should also be avoided in FIV cats that have bone marrow suppression

a. G-CSF because can promote viral replication
Which recombinant product has been shown to be safe and or helpful in anemic cats with felv/FIV

a. rHuEPO