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28 Cards in this Set

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Name and describe the two states of fungi

Yeast: grow as single cells


Moulds: grow as hyphae (long filaments)

White patches on the tongue: what are their name and causative microorganism?

Thrush


Candida albicans

What organism causes athlete's foot?

Tinea pedis

What fungal infection is commonly seen in patients with AIDS.

Pneumocystis pneumonia

Treatment of fungal infections and mechanism of action

Azole: inhibits synthesis of ergosterol (found only in fungal wall)

Are fungi prokaryotes or eukaryotes?

Eukaryotes

What type of infection is ringworm?

Fungi (not parasite)

What organism causes ringworm?

Tinea corporis

Name and describe the two forms of parasites

Protozoa: single cell


Helminths: multicellular

What organism causes malaria?

Plasmodium falciparum


Plasmodium vivax


Plasmodium ovale


Plasmodium malariae

Name 4 symptoms of malaria

Cyclical fevers


Diarrhoea


Vomiting


Headache

How could be the blood pH in a patient with malaria? Why?

Lactic acidosis due to breakdown of RBC

Vector of malaria

Anapheles mosquito

Outline the life cycle of Plasmodium

1. Mosquito bites injecting infected saliva


2. Parasites travels to the liver


3. Asexual division in hepatocytes over 2 weeks


4. Hepatocytes rupture


5. Infection of RBC




6a. Multiplication in RBC


7a. RBC rupture, releasing toxins




6b. Become male or female gametocyte


7b. Reabsorbed by mosquito


8b. Sexual reproduction in mosquito's gut

What species of Plasmodium may lead to recurrent infections?

Plasmodium vivax


Plasmodium ovale

Three ways by which Plasmodium evades the immune system

1. Hides in RBC


2. Causes RBC to adhere to blood vessels preventing removal by spleen


3. Antigenic variation

Name 4 prevention strategies against malaria and give a concrete example of each.

A. Larva control: cover stagnant water with oil


B. Mosquito control: insecticide-treated bed nets


C. Insect repellent: DEET


D. Chemoprophylaxis: malarone

Three symptoms of Lesihmaniasis

Necrosis and ulceration at bite site


Fever


Diarrhoea


Darkening of hands and face

Vector of Leishmania

Sandflies

Outline Leishmania life cycle

1. Sandfly bites and inject the parasite

2. Leishmania invades macrophages, neutrophils, DC, and fibroblasts


3. Parasites replicate in vacuole of macrophages


4. Vacuole and plasma membrane burst


5. Free parasites invade other macrophages or are sucked by sandflies


What disease can be transmitted by sandflies?

Leishmaniasis

What disease can be transmitted by tsetse flies?

Sleeping thickness by Trypanosoma brucei

Outline the life cycle of Trypanosoma brucei

1. Tsetse fly bites releasing the parasite


2. Parasite matures and replicates in blood, lymph, and CSF


3. Parasites get reabsorbed

Name one way by which Trypanosoma brucei evades the immune system

Antigenic variation of glycoprotein coat

What pathogen causes chagas disease?

Trypanosoma cruzi

What disease does Trypanosoma cruzi cause?

chagas disease

What is the vector of Trypanosoma cruzi?

Kissing bug

Name four cells invaded by Trypanosoma cruzi

Macrophages


Muscle cells


Epithelial cells


Neurons