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44 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Supported by Secretary of State James G. Blaine. Philosophy that advocated an economic union among all countries in Western Hemisphere.
James G. Blaine
Secretary of State under James Garfield and Benjamin Harrison. Advocated Pan-Americanism and tried to persuad Latin American countries to purchase manufactured goods from the U.S. He proposed a customs union that would give a reciprocal tariff cut between Latin American countries and the U.S.
Josiah Strong
Wrote 'Our Country' in 1885, a book that advocated imperialism and connected it to Social Darwinism. He said to survive, a country must be strong and obtain overseas colonies.
Alfred T. Mahan
Wrote 'The Influence of Sea Power Upon History' in 1890. Book stated that powerful nations need to have strong naval fleets to protect the country's overseas possessions and merchant marines. A nation's wealth depends on strategically located bases to accomodate its large naval fleet.
Virginius Affair
1873: Virginius was American ship that shipped arms to Cuban rebels. Spanish captured Virginius in 1873 and killed 8 Americans. Caused international incident that ended when Spain apologized and paid an indemnity.
Pago Pago
Samoan port that was acquired by the U.S. in 1878 and was used as a coal station. Tensions escalated between the English and Germans when their claims to Samoa conflicted. German threats of annexation nearly started a naval war in 1889, but a hurricane destroyed both nation's ships. In 1899 the islands were divided between Germany and U.S.
Baltimore Affair
1891: U.S. sent the battleship Baltimore to Valparaiso Harbor in Chile. Two sailors were killed in a bar brawl while on leave. Conflict was inevitable because anti-American sentiment was high in Chile. American public demanded war, but the Chilean government appeased the U.S. by paying $75,000 in compensation.
Pribiloff Seal Dispute
1893: The near extinction of fur seals from the Pribiloff Islands in Alaska caused a dispute that resulted in the restriction of seal hunting near the Alaskan coast. However, this restriction was unenforceable.
Venezuelan-Guiana Dispute
1895: Because a border was never clearly established between Venezuela and British Guiana, a dispute occured when gold was found in the contested area. The U.S. threatened war because England violated the Monroe Doctrine. England backed down and allowed the dispute to be settled by an arbiration committee so that England could focus her power on expansionistic Germany.
Richard Olney
Secretary of State under Cleveland and warned England that grave consequences would follow if England didn't allow arbitration in the Venezuela boundary dispute.
Reconcentration Policy
Policy that Spanish Generals used to deal with captured Cuban rebels. Civilians and soldiers were imprisoned, tortured and killed in extermination camps. These were first introduced during the Cuban insurrection by General Valeriano Weyler.
De Lome Letter
1898: Dupoy de Lome was the Spanish Ambassador to the U.S. He wrote a letter that degraded and slandered President McKinley. Hearst intercepted the letter and printed it on the front page of his newspaper. De Lome was sent back to Spain as a persona non grata, or someone who was not welcome.
'Maine' (the ship)
1898: The Maine was an American battleship that was sent to Havana as a goodwill gesture. Tensions culminated when 260 sailors were killed in an external explosion that sank the ship. This event made the Spanish-American War inevitable.
George Dewey, Manila Bay
The naval battle at Manila Bay was the first U.S. military action of the Spanish-American War. Admiral George Dewey entered Manila Bay with 6 U.S. battleships and defeated the anchored Spanish ships. All the forts and ships in the harbor were destroyed with the help of Emilio Aguinaldo, a Filipino rebel leader.
Rough Riders, San Juan Hill
The Rough Riders were a colorful regiment of volunteers who were led by Colonel Wood and Lieutenant Colonel Roosevelt. They were a rowdy group of soldiers who fought with enthusiasm and took San Juan Hill in Cuba.
Treaty of Paris
1898: This treaty ended the Spanish-American War and freed Cuba from Spanish rule. The U.S. recieved Puerto Rico, Guam, and purchased the Philippines for $20 million.
Queen of Hawaii who surrendered to U.S. military who landed to support American interests and placed the Queen under house arrest. This was an attempt to bring Hawaiian sugar under the U.S. tariff wall by annexing Hawaii.
Walter Reed
An army doctor who successfully conducted experiments in 1900 that showed yellow fever came from the bite of a species of mosquito. This discovery led to the cleanup of breeding zones for mosquitoes in Cuba and Central America, which allowed the construction of the Panama Canal.
Teller Amendment
1898: It stated that the U.S. would not take Cuban territory at the end of the Spanish-American War.
Platt Amendment
1901: It stated that Cuba couldn't make any commitments that would take away its sovereignty and couldn't contact debts that were beyond its incoming revenue. It gave the U.S. the right to intervene in Cuba whenever the U.S. felt Cuba's independence was at stake. It also gave the U.S. two military bases in Cuba.
Emilio Aguinaldo
Leader of the Philippine insurrection against foreign rule. The coup began on Feb. 4, 1899. He helped U.S. seize Manila because he thought the Philippines would gain their independence in exchange.
This is a privilege that enables certain people the right to remain subject to their own country's laws. The U.S. had this privilege in China.
John Hay
Secretary of State under McKinley. He issued the Open Door Policy and obtained a lease for land needed to build the Panama CanaL.
Spheres of Influence
With regard to China, it referred to the control European nations had over China and its trade. The Europeans gained concessions on tariffs and the number of ports that were open to trade.
Open Door Policy
1899: It was presented by John Hay and asked all nations controlling China to grant free trading oppertunities to everyone.
Boxer Rebellion
1900: Boxers were a secret organization opposing any foreign presence in China. They attacked foreighn legations of Peking and killed 300 people. In retaliation, the U.S. and other nations sent a coalition force to put down the rebellion. China had to pay millions in indemnity because the death toll. The Ho Ch'uan were referred to as "Boxers" in the western world because they clenched their fists to show power.
Theodore Roosevelt
Became president after McKinley was assassinated. He was a man of action who was honest and efficient.
The Big Stick Policy
This was Roosevelt's foreign Policy slogan, "Speak softly and carry a big stick." There was an emphasis on military and naval preparedness.
Hay-Paunceforte Treaty
1901: Treaty between the U.S. and England allowed the U.S. to build a canal in Panama as long as U.S. let other nations use the canal under equitable conditions.
Spooner Act
1902: Passed after the French Panama canal Company sold its franchise of the Panama Canal at half prcie. Roosevelt was then able to proceed with the Panama route.
Panama Revolution
A Panamanian revolutionary, Phillipe Banau-Varilla planned a rebellion to free Panama from Colombia. A U.S. warship arrived to keep Colombian soldiers from stopping the revolt. The U.S. soon recognized the Republic and received a lease to build the Panama Canal.
Drago Doctrine
1907: Luis Drago was the Argentinean minister of foreign affairs. His doctrine stated that no country could intervene in the affairs of another country.
Venezuelan Crisis of 1902
Venezuela owned certain European nations money. They attempted to collect the debt by blockading the Venezuelean coast. This was a violation of the Monroe Doctrine, and almost caused the U.S. and those European nations to go to war against each other.
Roosevelt Corollary
1904: Roosevelt gave his own addendum to the Monroe Doctrine, which stated that the U.S. would intervene in the Western Hemisphere to prevent outside intervention.
Dollar Diplomacy
Policy created by Taft as U.S. investments increased around the world. It allowed US intervention in countries with unstable economies. The US would take control of banks, customs duties, and other revenue producing facilities until the economy was stablized. The US then would influence the election of a pro-US president and would help the government with its finances.
Russo-Japanese War, Port Arthur
1904-1905: War between Russia and Japan over their desire for Manchuria. Japan needed materials to industrialize and Russia needed resources for a trans-Siberian railroad. Japan launched a decisive attack at Port Arthur, catching Russia off guard. In the end, Japan had a slight advantage because it had destroyed Russia's naval fleet.
Treaty of Portsmouth
1905: Roosevelt arbitrated a peace treaty between Russia and Japan to end the Russo-Japan War. Japan recieved half the Sakhalin Island, Russia's recognition of Japanese control over Korea and the Southern Manchurian Railroad, while Russia received nothing. For this arbitration, Roosevelt became the first American to win the Nobel Peace Prize.
Gentleman's Agreement
1907: Roosevelt promised that Japanese students would be integrated into Californian schools if Japan stopped its flow of unskilled labor to America.
Root-Takahira Agreement
1908: It was an agreement between Japan and the US in which both nations pledged to respect the Open Door Policy and each other's island possessions.
Webb Act
1913: It forbade Japanese to own land in California. This act was evaded because they transferred their land titles to their American-born children.
Lansing-Ishi Agreement
1917: Agreement between US and Japan that Japan would get the Shantung Peninsula provided Japan respected the Open Door Policy and China's territorial integrity.
Great White Fleet
Roosevelt sent 16 white warships around the world to show all countries (especially Japan) America's naval power.
Elihu Root
He created the General Staff, which advised the President and the Secretary of War on the proper US military response to crises. Root also created the War College, a graduate school for military officers.
Mobile Doctrine
Created by Wilson and stated that no country could intervene in the foreign affairs of another country.