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18 Cards in this Set

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Name seven complications related to vaccine

Reversion to wild type


Improperly killed organisms


Inclusion of toxic material


Cross-reaction with self


Cause disease in immunodeficients


Local inflammation at site of injection


Hypersensitivity to vaccines

Name 3 drawbacks of living vaccines

Instability (if cold chain is not maintained)


Reversion to wild type


Cause diseases in immunocompromised

Name 4 types of vaccine

Live attenuated


Killed organisms


Subunit


Inactivated exotoxins

Name 2 drawbacks of non-living vaccines

No proliferation => Need booster


Lack of PAMP => No activation of innate system

For what organisms is boosting required? Why?

For the (nearly) eradicated diseases because natural re-exposure does not occur

One advantage and one drawback of passive immunisation

Acts immediately (even after exposure)




Does not lead to memory

What type of vaccine is Sabin polio?

Live attenuated

What type of vaccine is influenza vaccine?

Subunit (injected)


Live attenuated (spray)

What type of vaccine is cholera vaccine?

Killed whole organism

What type of vaccine is hepatitis B vaccine?

Subunit

What type of vaccine is Pertussis vaccine?

Killed whole organism

What type of vaccine is measles vaccine?

Live attenuated

What type of vaccine is tetanus vaccine?

Inactivated exotoxins

What type of vaccine is vaccinia?

Live

What is the mechanism of action of smallpox vaccine?

Inject live unattenuated vaccinia (cowpox) which is relatively asymptomatic in humans and protects against the closely related smallpox virus.

Which are typically more expensive: live vaccine or killed organisms?

Killed organisms because live cultures can easily be maintained.

Distinguish live and dead vaccines in terms of the evoked immune response.

Live: Antibodies and cell-mediated


Dead: Only antibodies

Define R0

Total number of cases that would result from the introduction of a single infectious individual into a susceptible population.