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39 Cards in this Set

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List the seven non-specific immune defenses

Mechanical barriers (skin, mucous membranes) Species resistance


Chemical barriers (stomach acid, lysozyme)


Fever


Natural Killer Cells


Inflammation


Phagocytosis

How does fever work to defend us?

Sequestration of iron, which microorganisms need for growth and metabolism

What's the difference between specific and non-specific immunity?
Specific immunity requires recognition of self and other, and works on specific antigens. Non-specific immunity protects regardless of the organism.
What is the substance that triggers an immune response called?
Antigen
What are the two types of specific immunity?
Humoral (antibody mediated) and cell-mediated immunity
What substance is produced in humoral immunity?
Antibody
What substance is produced in cell-mediated immunity?
Perforin
What cell makes antibody? *(humoral immunity)
B lymphocyte (B cell)
What cell makes perforin? *(cell-mediated immunity)
T lymphocyte(T cell)
How many types of antigen receptors are found on ONE B cell or T cell?
One only. A B or T cell can interact with ONE antigen only!
How many antigens can one B or T cell bind to?
One only
What does the thymus do?
Destroys T cells that would attack the body, matures those that would not.
Which cell requires the antigen be presented?
T lymphocyte(T cell)
What does the helper T cell do?
Stimulates clone formation, increasing the number of cells in the immune response to an antigen
How does antibody work?
Direct attack (clumping), Neutralization of toxins, opsonization, activation of complement
What are the five types of antibody?
IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM
What does IgM do?
Primary immune response
What does IgG do?
Secondary immune response
What does IgA do?
Found in secretions and breast milk
What does IgE do?
Important in allergy
What does IgD do?
IgD is the receptor on B cells, aids in B cell activation
What is opsonization?
Antibody or complement binds to pathogen, making phagocytosis easier
What is the chief action of antibody?
Activation of complement
What is complement?
A system of proteins in the serum, a part of the immune response
How does complement work?
Cell lysis and chemotaxis among other effects
What is the polyclonal response?
One molecule of a pathogen can have many antigenic sites, each which will bind to a lymphocyte, provoking many clones of defenders.
How do we classify immunity?
Active or Passive, Artificially acquired or Naturally acquired
You get sick and then clear the virus. How is your immunity classified?
Naturally acquired active immunity
How do you decide if the immunity is active or passive?
Who makes the antibody? If YOU do, your immunity is active. If someone else makes the antibody and gives it to you, it's passive
How do you decide if the immunity is Artificially acquired or Naturally acquired?
If a health-care provider is involved, it's artificially acquired. If it's a natural process, it's naturally acquired.
Mom breast feeds her infant, passing IgA antibodies to her infant. What type of immunity is this?
Naturally acquired passive immunity
You get a shot of antibodies from the health department. What type of immunity is this?
Artificially acquired passive immunity.
You are immunitized against rubella. What type of immunity is this?
Artificially acquired active immunity.
What is an allergy?
An allergy is an immune response to a substance that is not harmful.
Can you have an allergic reaction the first time you are exposed to an allergen?
No, the first time sensitizes you. The second exposure triggers the allergic reaction.
How does allergy and IgE work?
The first exposure causes release of IgE antibodies which then bind to Mast Cells. The second exposure trigger release of histamine and other substances from the Mast Cell which cause the allergic reaction.
What is autoimmunity?
A disorder in which the body creates an immune response to its own tissues.
What is tissue rejection?
The immune system will attempt to destroy tissue from another person. (like rejection of a kidney transplant)
What is an HLA type?
Like a blood type, but referring to tissues. A good HLA match will decrease the chance of organ rejection after transplant.