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89 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
group

two or more individuals engaged in social interaction in social interaction to achieve some goal

team

interdependent workers with complementary skills working toward a shared goal

roles

patterns of behavior that are adapted based on expectations about the functions of a position

role expectations

beliefs concerning the responsibilities and requirements of a particular role



role differentiation

the process by which group members learn to perform various roles

group work roles

related to getting the job done; i.e. info giver, procedural technician, evaluator-critic

group building and maintenance roles

deals with the maintenance of interpersonal relations among group members; i.e. encourager, harmonizer and compromiser

self-centered roles

involves satisfying personal rather than group goals; i.e. recognition seeker, aggressor and help-seeker

role ambiguity

a sense of uncertainty over the requirements of a particular role

role conflict

conflict that results when the expectations associated with one role interfere with the expectations concerning another role

norms

rules that groups adopt governing appropriate and inappropriate behavior for members

organizational socialization

the process by which new employees learn group roles and norms and develop specific work skills and abilities

conformity

the process of adhering to group norms

cohesiveness

the degree of attraction among group members

we-they feeling

intragroup cohesiveness created by the existence of a common threat, which is typically another group

group efficacy

a group's shared belief that they can attain organizational outcomes

reciprocity rule

the tendency for persons to pay back those to whom they are indebted for assistance

task interdependence

the degree to which an individual's task performance depends on the efforts or skills of others

social loafing

the phenomenon whereby individuals working in groups exert less effort than when working alone

competition

the process whereby group members are pitted against one another to achieve individual goals

conflict

behavior by a person or group intended to inhibit the attainment of goals by another person or group

dominating (forcing)

a conflict resolution strategy of persisting in a conflict until one party attains personal goals at the expense of other's

accommodation

a conflict resolution strategy of making a sacrifice to resolve a conflict

compromise

a conflict resolution strategy in which both parties give up some of their goals

collaboration

a conflict resolution strategy in which the parties cooperate to reach a solution that satisfies both

avoidance

withdrawing from or avoiding a conflict situation

superordinate goal

a goal that two conflicting parties are willing to work to attain

autocratic decision making

a process by which group decisions are made by the leader alone, based on info the leader possesses

consultative decision making

when the leader solicits info from group members to assist in reaching a solution, but still holds final say

democratic decision making

a strategy by which decisions are made by the group members based on majority-rule voting

consensus

decision making based on 100% member agreement

brainstorming

a group process generating creative ideas or solutions through a noncritical and nonjudgmental process

groupthink

a syndrome characterized by a concurrence-seeking tendency that overrides the ability of a cohesive group to make critical decisions

group polarization

the tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than those made by individuals

self-managing work teams

teams that have complete responsibility for whole tasks

leadership

ability to guide a group toward the achievement of goals

universalist theories

theories that look for the major characteristics common to all effective leaders

great man/women theory

a universalist theory of leadership that maintains that great leaders are born, not made

traits

enduring attributes associated with an individual's makeup or personality

trait theory

attempts to discover the traits shared by all effective leaders

behavioral theories of leadership

theories derived from studies at Ohio State and Michigan State that focus on the behaviors common to effective leaders

initiating structure

leader behaviors that define, organize, and structure the work situation

consideration

leader behaviors that show a concern for the feeling, attitudes and needs of followers

task-oriented behaviors

leader behaviors focused on the work task

relationship-oriented behaviors

leader behaviors focused on maintaining interpersonal relationships on the job

Leadership Grid

an application of the findings from the behavioral theories of leadership that stresses that effective leaders should be both task-oriented and relationship-oriented

contingency theories

theories that look at the interaction of characteristics of both the leader and the situation

Fieldler's contingency model

a leadership theory that maintains that effective leadership depends on a match between the leader's style and the degree to which the work situation gives control and influence to the leader

least preferred coworker (LPC)

a measure that assesses leader's task or relationship orientation by having them rate their most difficult fellow worker

leader-member relations

the quality of the relationship between leader and followers

task structure

an assessment of how well elements of the work task are structured

position power

a leader's authority to punish or reward followers

path-goal theory

states that a leader's job is to help the work group achieve their desired goals

directive behavior

leader behavior that provides instructions and suggestions for performing a job

achievement-oriented behavior

leader behavior concentrated on particular work outcomes

supportive behavior

leader behavior focusing on interpersonal relationships and showing concern for workers' well-being

participative behavior

leader behavior that encourages members to assume an active role in group planning and decision making

decision-making model

a theory that matches characteristics of the situation with leader decision-making strategies

leader-member exchange model (LMX)

a theory that effective leadership is determined by the quality of the interaction between the leader and particular group members


charismatic leadership theory

states that leaders possess some exceptional characteristics that cause followers to be loyal and inspired

transactional leadership

leadership based on some transaction, such as exchanging money for work

transformational leadership

focuses on the leader's ability to provide shared values and a vision for the future for the work group

shared leadership

where leadership is shared among the group members rather than begin centralized in one person

organizational structure

refers to the arrangement of positions in an organization and the authority and responsibility relationships among them

chain of command

the number of authority levels in an organization

span of control

the number of workers who must report to a single supervisor

functional structure

an organizational structure that divides then organization into departments based on the functions or tasks they perform

divisional structure

an organizational structure that divides the organization according to types of products or customers

centralization

the degree to which decision-making power rests at the upper levels of the organizational hierarchy

decentralization

the process of taking the decision-making authority away from the top levels of the organization and distributing it to lower levels

bureaucracy

a traditional organizational structure typified by a well-defined authority hierarchy and strict rules governing work behavior

line-staff organizational structure

a traditional organizational structure composed of one group of employees who achieve the goals of the organization (the line) and another group who support the line (staff)

line

employees in an organization who are engaged directly in tasks that accomplish its goals

staff

specialized employee positions designed to support the line

team organization

a nontraditional organizational structure consisting of a team of members organized around a particular project or product

project task force

a nontraditional organization of workers who are assembled temporarily to complete a specific job or project

matrix organization

an organizational design that blends function and product structures

differentiation

the complexity of an organization's structure that is based on the number of units, the orientations of mangers and the goals and interests of member

integration

the amount and quality of collaboration among the divisions of an organization

organizational culture

the shared values, beliefs, assumptions, and patterns of behavior within an organization

organizational development

the process of assisting organizations in preparing for and managing change

change agent

name for an OD practitioner, referring to the person's role as a catalyst who helps organizations through the process of change

action research

an OD methodological model that applies social science research methods to collecting relevant organizational data that are used for solving organizational problems

survey feedback

an OD technique whereby the consultant works with the organization to develop and administer a survey instrument to collect data that are fed back to organizational members and used as the starting point for change

t-groups (sensitivity training)

an OD technique that uses unstructured group interaction to assist workers in achieving insight into their motivations and behavior patterns in dealing with other organizational members

team building

an OD technique in which teams of workers discuss how to improve team performance by analyzing group interaction

process consultation

an OD technique in which a consultant helps a client-organziation study its problems objectively and learn to solve them

management by objectives (MBO)

a goal-setting OD technique in which supervisors and subordinates jointly set performance goals; at the end of the goal period, their attainment is evaluated and new goals are set

quality circles

small groups of volunteer employees from the same work area who meet regularly to solve work-related problems