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23 Cards in this Set

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Define conditions.

The framework but is not consumed.

Define resources.

They are consumed and can be a limiting factor.

Name some conditions.

Temperature, humidity, pH, salinity, physical forces and pollution.

What are the effects of temperature?

It effects physiological rates, as all organisms have an optimal temperature.

What is an endotherm?

Regulates their temperature by producing heat.

What is an ectotherm?

Relies on external sources of heat, have had to evolve strategies to evade extreme temperatures.

What are the effects of humidity?

-Terrestrial organisms lose water by evaporation.


-Relative humidity influences the rate of water loss. Drier the environment the greater the rate of water loss.

What are some forms of humidity avoidance and adaptation?

-Aestivation (Summer sleep)


-Plants can have leaf pubescence (Hairy surface)


-Mammals can have hair and no sweat glands.

What are the effects of pH?

-In soil it affects the availability of minerals to plants.


-It is toxic to plants at extremes.


-It reduces species richness at lower extremes.

What are the effects of salinity?

-In salt water organisms if hypotonic lose water by osmosis.


-Salt is excluded by impermeable roots which are highly suberised.


-White mangroves secrete excess salt directly.

What are the effects of physical forces?

Disturbance by waves, wind, fire and animal activity can lead to damage and death.

What are the effects of pollution?

By products of human activity such as heavy metals, acid rain, oil and pesticides.

What types of resources are there?

Biotic and abiotic components of the environment which are utilised and depleted by the activity of individuals.

What resources do autotrophs use?

-Solar radiation


-Water


-Mineral nutrients:


-Macronutrients - N,P,S,K,Ca,Mg,Fe


-Mirconutrients - Mn,Zn,Cu,B,Mo


-Carbon dioxide


-Oxygen

Define the relationship and adaptations between plants and solar radiation/light.

-Plants differ in their ability to utilise light in photosynthesis.


-There are sun species and shade species. Growth form reflects strategies.

Plants and there relationship with water and mineral nutrients.

-Taken up from the soil.


-Plants have different strategies e.g., shallow or deep roots. Root architecture changes with resource availability and management.


-Require nutrients in different proportions.

What do heterotrophs need.

-Organic matter (carbon chains)


-Water


-Mineral nutrients


-Oxygen

What types of heterotrophs are there?

Decomposers - feed on detritus.


Parasites - feed on living hosts.


Predators - eat animal prey.


Grazers/herbivores - eat plants.

Define space in detail.

It can be considered a proxy resource since control of space may provide key resources e.g., water light and nutrients.


Further it can be limited as it can provide sites for nesting and territory sizes.

What influences conditions and resources?

Availability, abundance and distribution.

Define habitat.

Habitats are actual physical places that provide conditions and resources and can satisfy the requirements of a range of species. A habitat is where an organism lives. Habitats can provide many different niches.

Define an ecological niche.

It's not a place it's an idea. It's a summary of an organism tolerances and requirements, a set of conditions and resources.

When was the idea of ecological niches proposed and who by?

Hutchinson in 1957.

"The total range of environmental variables to which aspecies must be adapted (physical, chemical & biotic) andunder which a species population replaces itself indefinitely."