Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/18

Click to flip

18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What are five words that could describe the environment?

Managed, natural, useful, treasured, pressured, green, needed, changing, confused, diminishing and exploited.

What are five words that could describe and urban environment?

Man-made, artificial, unnatural, entertaining, built up, busy, rich, crowded.

What shapes the environment?

Climate, vegetation, soil, geology, topography.

Out of the factors that shape the environment how many and what are influenced by humans?

4, Climate, vegetation, ecology and soil.

Define weather.

The temperature, precipitation and wind.

Define climate.

The average weather we expect over a long period of time.

What factors affect the climate?

Sun - source of heat.


Atmosphere - traps and distributes heat, greenhouse gases; water vapour, CO2 and methane.


Oceans - store and distribute heat.

What is the Earths mean albedo?

0.36

Give an example of the influence of the sea?

The North Atlantic drift makes NW Europe 5 degrees warmer than expected.

Why does weather vary?

Due to your position e.g., latitude.


Topography of the land e.g., rain shadow effect.


Land use e.g., pesticides or increased CO2 production.


Altitude.

Evidence for climate change and if it has happened before?

There are human records going back centuries.


Physical records e.g., ice cores, tree rings and rocks.

What are ice age cycles?

Long term cycles in climate that make some areas 20 degrees cooler and cover them in ice and snow.


Happen roughly every 100,000 years.

How was Britain's landscape different in 13,000 BC since the last ice age?

Britain was covered in snow and ice and sea level was 127m lower. There was a land bridge between Britain and mainland Europe. Glaciers started to carve out deep valleys in upland areas.

What changes have happened between 13,000 BC and 10,000 BC to make Britain how it is today?

-Melt-waters re-shaped landscape and drift geology.


-After the glaciers melted the land was infertile and left like Arctic tundra.


-First birch, aspen, pine and hazel trees appear. Later oak, elm and lime arrive.

What changes have happened between 9,000 BC and 5,000 BC to make Britain how it is today?

-Temperatures keep rising.


-Vegetation is mostly influenced by immigration.


-Temp reaches 1-2 degrees higher than today and stays like that for 4000 years.


-Britain dominate by oak woodland.


-Sea levels rise and land bridge dispersals.


-Flora less diverse and lime woodland now dominates south.

What changes have happened between 4,000 BC and 500 BC to make Britain how it is today?

-Farming arrives.


-Population around 20,000.


-Woodland clearance starts.


-Cattle and sheep grazed.


-Bronze age helps farming develop further.


-Most wild woodland near rivers cleared.


-Climate becomes wetter and cooler.


-Lime and elm become rarer.

What changes have happened between AD40 and C17 to make Britain how it is today?

-Further forest clearance.


-250,000 people.


-Field systems in rotation and coppicing has begun.


-Romans, Anglo-Saxon and Normans arrive and go.


-Britain has 15% woodland coverage.


-Land drainage begins.

What changes have happened to Britain's landscape recently?

-Declining diversity, distinctiveness and ecological richness.


-Loss of some natural features and habitats e.g., ancient woodland and unimproved grassland.


-Decline in tradition agriculture.


-Loss of archaeological sites and traditional buildings.


-Increased urbanisation which has poor design and made from unsustainable and poor materials.