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58 Cards in this Set

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Which philosopher is associated with naturalizing epistemology

descartes

what philosophy does descartes draw from?

aristotle and stoicism

what philosopher does hacker draw from?

ludwig wittgenstein

why is hacker critical of naturalized epistemology?

he says it is not a real problem and is just conceptual confusion

hacker doesn't like consciousness becuase

he says it is fiction

quine doesn't like consciousness because

agrees with behaviorists in that human just respond to stimuli in the environment

what philosopher does the modern concept of consciousness trace back to

plato

according to plato, what are the three parts of the soul?

logic, reason (rational), appetite (irrational)

according to plato, which part of the soul should rule a just person

reason/rational

according to plato, which part of the soul continues after death?

reason/rational

according to plato, which part of the soul dies with the body?

hylomorphism

says being is a compound of matter and form

which philosopher is associated with hylomorphism

aristotle

what is the different between form and matter?

form is the shape that matter occurs in (brick house) while matter is the object that make something up (bricks). form is actual and matter is potential

what are aristotles three kinds of souls?

nutritive, sensitive, rational

according to aristotle, what kind of soul do humans have?

rational soul

according to aristotle, what part of the brain does the knowing?

agent intellect

according to aristotle interpreters, how many agent intellects are there

two divisions

mysterianism

says the hard problem of consciousness can't be solved by humans

david chalmers talks about

zombies, huamsn aren't zombies but could be if they knowing longer "felt"

who was heideggers famous teacher?

husserl

what is heideggers main question

what does it mean to BE?

what are dasein

"being there"- human beings

does heidegger equate humans with consciousness

no, he doesn't like consciousness but does say there is something that makes humans different

who are They?

the crowd/ others

difference between authenticity and inauthenticity?

authenticity means a person is true to themselves, inauthenticity means a person is influenced and pressured by the norms of society

relationship between death and authenticity?

humans are authentic when faced with death because none cane die for us

how does death relate to the They?

they do not all about death, they make you fear death and say to have courage, dying is how we separate form the they.

according to heidegger, are we more focused on our own or others death?

ours

accoridng to levinas, are we more concerned with our own or others death?

other

what is the call of the other?

when we hear others speak, they are asking for help, we can't say no because we are obligatory individuals and we would be jerks to say no

what is levinas totality? and infinity?

according to levinas, what is the most important question?

how it feels to be

accoridng to levinas, can we understand ourselves without reference to how we relate to others?

no, interaction with others influences us.

according to levinas, to understand human nature you must look at human interaction with others, why?

interaction influences our actions and helps us understand others by how they respond

accoridng to levinas, what is first philosophy?

ethics

mimesis?

imitation

mimetic desire?

human desire is provoked by others desire, we want what others want

accoidng to girard, what is the function of human sacrifice?

to relive tension, to diffuse crisis and restore peace

accoidng to mimetic theory, what is the origin of taboos and rituals?

violence, they ar to prevent rivalries

why do humans cause more casualties than other animals?

we have weapons and modern technology

accoridng to girard, what is human violence rooted in, aka what is the source of human violence?

mimesis

mirror neurons?

brain cells that are activated regardless of whether an individual is performing or observing an action by another.

what does girard mean by scapegoat

a person/animal/object that is used as an outlet for violence

What is a u encounter?

low risk, low reward

what is an e-encounter

high risk high reward

why does plato say the rational soul continues after death?

why does plato say the ____ soul dies with the body?

according to aristotle, what powers/abilites characterize each parts of the soul?

nutritive soul is plants, sensitive soul is animals, rational soul is humans

what does chalmers zombie argument intend to prove?

that physical characteristics don't cause experiences

according to dennet, are we zombies? what is his view about consciousness?

no, he says they are incoherent and impossible. dennett says consciousness occurs in several places in the brain.

according to chalmers, does consciousness arise from the brain or is it an independent entity

chalmers says consciousness is an independent and irreducible property

what is phenomenology?

study of structure of experience and consciousness

who started phenomenology and when?

husserl in early 20th century

according to phenomenology, define epoch, reduction, intentionality and constitution

epoche- bracketing - means to set aside any previous knowledge and to learn about something as it is being experienced


reduction


intentionality


constitution

what are some ways phenomenology can be brought to bear questions in cognitive science

noema and the fulfilled/unfulfilled aspects?

what are dennets criticisms of phenomenology?

He says it relies on introspection and lacks consensus. says there is too much room for people to make things up

according to phenomenologist, what comes first: the natural science world or the lifeworld?

lifeworld (the soil which various ways of being stem from)