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67 Cards in this Set

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A symbolic story in which there is a hidden, ulterior meaning - frequently political or moral
Gaps, missing details
Teleology (teleologically driven)
Telos - end, final cause
Teleologically driven - something that is "end driven"
Defining commitment
That which makes you an individual
Droight du seigneur
"The right of the lord"
Lord takes the virginity of a man's wife
Ius primae noctis
"Right of the first night"
Lord takes the virginity of a man's wife on their wedding night
Ultimate boon
Final goal
(Ex. Gilgamesh's ultimate boon was eternal life)
The Road of Trials
The quest for immortality
1. Scorpion Man & Woman - Run for 12 hours through the tunnel to beat the sun
2. Shiduri (Tavern Keeper) - Thought to be wild man and sent to the river
3. Urshanabi (Boat Man) - Cut down 300 trees to cross Dead Lake
In medias res
In the middle of the story
The study of "causes"
Vivid description of a work of art
Shield of Achilles
Symbolism within the Caravaggio painting of The Akedah (Christian allegory)
Angel has red curly hair (like Judas is often depicted)

Ram is an uncircumcised lamb (lamb of God, Jesus) and the ram is the savior of Isaac as was God for humanity
Jewish significance of The Akedah
Akedah is used as a paradigm for Jewish martyrdom; the Jewish people are ready at all times to give up life itself for the sake of the sanctification of the divine name
Characteristics of the Defining Commitment
It creates your world
You can't be objective
Your past is refined by your defining commitment
Your future is redefined by your defining commitment
Your commitment is irreversible
You become vulnerable because of your defining commitment
Gilgamesh Plot
Important Quotes from Gilgamesh
Gilgamesh’s defining commitment
Enkidu - a life-changing relationship
Features of epic literature
Hero of legendary significance, often a king, ruler, or leader
Shows great deeds, requiring superhuman abilities
Starts in media res
Usually invokes a muse
States theme early in poem
Oral tradition - uses repetition
Catalogues of things - weapons, warriors, ships, ect.
Uses elevated tone/language
Journey stage: Birth
Fabulous circumstances surrounding conception, birth, and childhood establish the hero’s pedigree, and often constitute their own monomyth cycle.
Journey stage: Call to Adventure
The hero is called to adventure by some external event or messenger. The Hero may accept the call willingly or reluctantly.
Journey stage: Helpers/Amulet
During the early stages of the journey, the hero will often receive aid from a protective figure. This supernatural helper can take a wide variety of forms, such as a wizard, and old man, a dwarf, a crone, or a fairy godmother. The helper commonly gives the hero a protective amulet or weapon for the journey.
Journey stage: Crossing the Threshold
Upon reaching the threshold of adventure, the hero must undergo some sort of ordeal in order to pass from the everyday world into the world of adventure. This trial may be as painless as entering a dark cave or as violent as being swallowed up by a whale. The important feature is the contrast between the familiar world of light and the dark, unknown world of adventure.
Journey stage: Tests
The hero travels through the dream-like world of adventure where he must undergo a series of tests. These trials are often violent encounters with monsters, sorcerers, warriors, or forces of nature. Each successful test further proves the hero's ability and advances the journey toward its climax.
Journey stage: Helpers
The hero is often accompanied on the journey by a helper who assists in the series of tests and generally serves as a loyal companion. Alternately, the hero may encounter a supernatural helper in the world of adventure who fulfills this function.
Journey stage: Climax/The Final Battle
This is the critical moment in the hero's journey in which there is often a final battle with a monster, wizard, or warrior which facilitates the particular resolution of the adventure.
Journey stage: Flight
After accomplishing the mission, the hero must return to the threshold of adventure and prepare for a return to the everyday world. If the hero has angered the opposing forces by stealing the elixir or killing a powerful monster, the return may take the form of a hasty flight. If the hero has been given the elixir freely, the flight may be a benign stage of the journey.
Journey stage: Return
The hero again crosses the threshold of adventure and returns to the everyday world of daylight. The return usually takes the form of an awakening, rebirth, resurrection, or a simple emergence from a cave or forest. Sometimes the hero is pulled out of the adventure world by a force from the daylight world.
Journey stage: Elixer
The object, knowledge, or blessing that the hero acquired during the adventure is now put to use in the everyday world. Often it has a restorative or healing function, but it also serves to define the hero's role in the society.
Journey stage: Home
The hero comes back from this mysterious adventure with the power to bestow boons on his fellow man.
Similarities between Gilgamesh and stories from Genesis
Creation of Adam - Creation of Enkidu
Flood story
King of Uruk, the strongest of men, and the personification of all human virtues. A brave warrior, fair judge, and ambitious builder, Gilgamesh surrounds the city of Uruk with magnificent walls and erects its glorious ziggurats, or temple towers. Two-thirds god and one-third mortal, Gilgamesh is undone by grief when his beloved companion Enkidu dies, and by despair at the prospect of his own extinction. He travels to the ends of the Earth in search of answers to the mysteries of life and death.
Companion and friend of Gilgamesh. Hairy-bodied and brawny, Enkidu was raised by animals. Even after he joins the civilized world, he retains many of his undomesticated characteristics. Enkidu looks much like Gilgamesh and is almost his physical equal. He aspires to be Gilgamesh’s rival but instead becomes his soul mate. The gods punish Gilgamesh and Enkidu by giving Enkidu a slow, painful, inglorious death for killing the demon Humbaba and the Bull of Heaven.
The temple prostitute who tames Enkidu by seducing him away from his natural state. Though Shamhat’s power comes from her sexuality, it is associated with civilization rather than nature. She represents the sensuous refinements of culture—the sophisticated pleasures of lovemaking, food, alcohol, music, clothing, architecture, agriculture, herding, and ritual.
The goddess of love and fertility, as well as the goddess of war. Ishtar is frequently called the Queen of Heaven. Capricious and mercurial, sometimes she is a nurturing mother figure, and other times she is spiteful and cruel. She is the patroness of Uruk, where she has a temple.
The fearsome demon who guards the Cedar Forest forbidden to mortals. Humbaba’s seven garments produce an aura that paralyzes with fear anyone who would withstand him. He is the personification of awesome natural power and menace. His mouth is fire, he roars like a flood, and he breathes death, much like an erupting volcano. In his very last moments he acquires personality and pathos, when he pleads cunningly for his life.
A king and priest of Shurrupak, whose name translates as “He Who Saw Life.” By the god Ea’s connivance, Utnapishtim survived the great deluge that almost destroyed all life on Earth by building a great boat that carried him, his family, and one of every living creature to safety. The gods granted eternal life to him and his wife.
Utnapishtim's wife
An unnamed woman who plays an important role in the story. Utnapishtim’s wife softens her husband toward Gilgamesh, persuading him to disclose the secret of the magic plant called How-the-Old-Man-Once-Again-Becomes-a-Young-Man.
Female influence in Gilgamesh
Shamhat has sex with Enkidu, leading him into manhood and breaks his uncivilized nature

Utnapishtim's wife tells Gilgamesh about the flower of eternal youth
The Iliad Plot
Important Quotes from The Iliad
Epic features used in The Iliad
In media res
Invokes the muse
Teleologically driven
Lengthy poem, dealing with serious matters and high-born people
Cataloguing of items and characters
Teleologically driven toward what event??
Death of Achilles
Etiology of the Trojan War
Study of "causes"
The Apple of Discord caused Judgment of Paris
Helen’s 50 suitors caused war protecting Helen
Love & Intimacy
Wisdom & War Skills
Wealth & Power
Leader of the Myrmidons, important warrior for the Greeks (half god, half human)
King of Mycenae, leader of the Greeks
King of Sparta, Agamemnon’s brother, Helen’s husband
King of Ithaca, Greek commander and clever strategist. (Also is the hero of The Odyssey.)
Achilles’s comrade
Hector’s wife
captured by the Greeks; Achilles’s concubine.
Most important warrior for Trojans, son of King Priam
Queen of Troy
(daughter of Zeus) Menelaus’s wife whose kidnapping and rape started the war
Abductor of Helen, brother of Hector and Deiphobus
King of Troy (very old)
son of Hector
(son of Zeus) Killed by Patroclus
Achilles’s defining commitment
Integrity of the soldier - honor
Shield of Achilles
Patroclus dies because he was wearing his armor
By Achilles not fighting with the Greek he in turn punishes himself with the best friend's death
Treatment of Patroclus and Hector’s dead bodies
Patroclus's body was left on the battle field, Achilles was afraid it would get mutilated, felt shameful, wanted to give him a proper burial

Hector's body was dragged around behind a chariot by Achilles around Patroclus's tomb
Factors in Hector’s death
Fate - death foretold
Pride - embarrassment, he'd rather face Achilles than face his people
Athena - told Zeus not to save his (shows favoritism)
Why the story ends here
Prophecies have foretold the rest of the story
The purpose of The Iliad is not to sack Troy it's about the relationship between gods and humans
Shows fickleness of gods