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25 Cards in this Set

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functions of skeletal system

* provides support for soft organs
* protection of many organs
* joints provide flexible movement of many parts of the body
* mineral (calcium, phosphorus) storage
* bone marrow: synthesis of blood cells

3 types of connective tissue in skeletal system

bone, ligaments (dense fibrous connective tissue), and cartilage

fn of cartilage

support under pressure

3 types of cartilage

fibrocartilage (in between vertebrae), hyaline (in between joints), and elastic (flexible)

spongy bone cells =

trabeculae

4 living cells associated with bones

* chondroblasts => cartilage forming cells that build a “model” of bone
* osteoblasts => bone forming cells ; secrete organic material known as osteoid which forms collagen like frame work for calcium & phosphate to stick on to
* osteocytes => mature ; non-dividing ; maintain structure ; used to be osteoblasts ; connect to blood sources through canaliculi
* osteoclasts => bone erosion ; lots of lysosomes

canaliculi

canals for osteocytes to get bloody

5 bone shapes

long, short, irregular, sesamoid (provide leverage), flat

5 [anatomy] components of a long bone

diaphysis, 2 epiphysis, central cavity, spongy bone, compact bone

periosteum


connective tissue covering all bones

osteon (or haversian system)

toilet paper

what do osteons surround?

the central canal

what type of blood canal moves horizontally through bones?

transverse canal (canaliculi)

4 steps of intramembranous ossification

* 1) mesenchyme forms a membrane with osteoprogenitor cells
* 2) becomes vascularized
* 3) osteoprogenitor cells transform into osteoblasts
* 4) lay down osteoid which become mineralized

2 types of bone generation/repair

* intramembranous ossification (flat bone/skull)
* endochondral ossification (most long/short)

7 steps of endochondral ossification

* 1) cartilage model spreads from center to ends
* 2) blood vessel enters model at mid diaphysis
* 3) periosteum develops ; enlarges to produce a bone collar
* 4) primary ossification center forms (initial center of bone development)
* 5) grows in length from the diaphysis towards epiphyses
* 6) 2nd ossification centers appear in epiphysis ; bone growth toward diaphysis
* 7) epiphyseal plate remains between diaphysis and each epiphysis until bone growth in length is complete

what are the 4 pieces of a baby's skull called?

fontanels

osteo =

bone

blast =

generation

clast =

erosion/destruction

2 hormones that regulate bone cells

* parathyroid hormone (PTH) => PTH secretion increases when Ca++ levels are low ; stimulates osteoclasts and removes bone
* calcitonin => secretion increases when blood Calcium (Ca++) levels are high ; stimulates osteoblasts and adds bone

what is artificial bone remodeling?

osteoblasts deposit more bone where stress is applied

3 types of muscle

smooth (blood vessels and pus sies), skeletal, cardiac (heart)

how many muscles in human body?

600+

5 muscles and fns

* pectoralis major => flexion/rotation of humerus
* biceps brachii => supinate forearm & flex elbow
* rectus abdominus => flexion of lumbar spine
* external oblique => compress abdominal cavity
* trapezius
* deltoids