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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

3150 BC

2000 BC

1600-1200 BC

1200-750/700 BC

753 BC

753-510 BC

3150 BC- Narmer (Egypt's 1st Pharaoh)

2000 BC- Sargon Empire Collapses

1600-1200 BC- Mycenaen Civilization

1200-750/700 BC- Geometric

753 BC- Rome established

753-510 BC- Rome has warning w/...

750/700-480 BC-

560-480 BC

510-133 BC

480-323 BC


323-30 BC

133-30 BC

750/700-480 BC- Archaic

560-480 BC

510-133 BC- Republic Starts

480-323 BC- Classical


323-30 BC- Hellenistic

133-30 BC- Fall of Republic


378 AD






378 AD- Battle of Adrianople

455- Vandals Sack Rome

476- End of Roman Empire

500-1000- Early Middle Ages








570-632- Mohammad's Life

768-814- Charlemagne

1000-1400- High Middle Ages


1066- Norman Conquest of England

1096-1204- Crusades

Define: Almontry




Common Law


Almontry: were alms are distruibuted

Calefactory: housed communal fire for monks

Caliph: Moslem Successor

Chivalry: religious moral and social code

Common Law: unwritten law based off customs

Cuneiform: wedged characters

Define: Didactic

Domesday Book




Frame Tale

Didactic: letters intended to teach

Domesday Book: William of Normandy's tax book

Elenchus: Socratic inquiry

Arch: Roman architecture

Epithet: Adjective nickname

Frame Tale: Stories within a story

Define: Hieroglyph






Hieroglyph: Egyptian writing system

Historia: Greek meaning "inquiry" or knowledge

Humanism: Emphasis on Human

Ichthys: 2 intersecting arches; "fish"

Iman: Islamic prayer leader

Islam: Submission

Define: Jihad


Linear A,B



Jihad: Struggle

Kenning: Old English/Norse poetry with compound expressions

Linear A,B: A(non decodable) B(early lang. used by Greeks)

Lord: Top; Over Vassals

Minuscule: Small print for writing Latin

Define: Mosque





Mosque: Moslem Church

Madrasa: college for Islamic instruction

Mullah: Moslem learned in theology and sacred law

Parable: Moral Analogy

Philosophia: Greek meaning love of wisdom

Define: People of the Book





People of the Book: Hebrews (Islamic Terms)

Pharaoh: ruler of Egypt

Polis: city state

Qadi: judges/pub officials

Refectory: Dining Hall

Define: Serf





Serf: slave; 90%; protected; step under vessels

Sharia: Moslem reference of laws

Theocracy: Priest rule in the name of God

Vassal: Work for lord on land

Vizier: Pharaoh's trustee; does all work

Mesopotamia: Geography, Code of Hammurabi, Social Structure

Geographically: Fertile crescent; between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.

Code of Hammurabi: 1st Babylonian Empire; 6th ruler named Hammurabi: 282 clauses on 7 ft stele; inequality; covers moral, social, and commercial obligations.

Social Structure: Specialization in labor; 1)Priest 2)Soldiers 3)Farmer;

Judaism: Brief history; General characteristics of the religion

Brief History: Abraham of Ur; convent w/ God; move to Egypt; become state slaves: Exodus; in desert; sort out religion

Generalization on religion: monotheism, moral codes (ethical); exclusivity laws

Egypt: Geography; Social Order Artistic Conventions

Geography: Nile (4000 miles); desert

Social Structure: fairly uniform religiously, politically & culturally; Powerful families have territories; Pharaoh ruler with Vizier; Women held power (brother sister marriage)

Artistic Conventions: Cannon & Module for Human Form; conceptual oppose to perceptual; size = importance

Greece: Geography; Religion; Basics of Greek Art & Architecture

Geographically: Islands and Peninsulas (Smaller than Maine); Mountainous

Religion: Polytheism; Zeus, Poseidon, Hades, etc.

Basis of Greek Art & Architecture: Classical; geometry created proportion and order thus channeling harmony; Module (chin to forehead 1/10 height); flexible unlike Egyptian; Symmetry;

Greece: Basis of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle

Socrates: Absolute nature of truth and justice; ethical life belonging to larger set of universal truth and an unchanging moral order; virtue (condition of psyche) discovered through misleading argumentation

Plato: Universal Forms that are unchanging

Aristotle: Reality existed in objects of material world; Systematic classification (identifying all by unchanging nature)

Greece: Basis of Epicureanism (Epicurus), Stoicism (Epictetus), Skepticism (Sextus Empiricus), Cynicism (Diogenes)

Skeptics: denying knowing anything;

Cynics: Spiritual satisfaction if one renounced material wealth

Epicureans: Happiness depended on avoiding all forms of physical excess

Stoics: Doctrine of detachment; aim was bring will to harmony with nature; allowed them to accept worst news

School placed good of self over community

Rome: Elements allowing Romans to hold Empire; Contributions of Diocletian and Constantine

Originated Iron Age Latins

Elements to hold Empire: Taxes, demanding military assistance, and slaves demands for slaves in new providence; Takes Italian Peninsula b/c control over sea.

Diocletian: Divides empire into Eastern and Western with co-emperor

Constantine: new taxes at economic attempt; Edict of Milan (313) toleration of all religions; made Byzantine "New Rome"

Rome: Architeture

Roads: 50,000 miles of road

Aquaducts: over 40 mil galloons a day, Pont du Gard

Arch: Inspired by Etruscans; Barrel vault if many

Theaters: orchestra (dancing circle), Skene (Stage Set or Dressing Room), Proscenium (Raised Stage next to Skene)

Basilicas: Atrium,Narthex, Nave, Transept, Apse

Circus Maximus: seated 200,000

Colosseum: 6 Acres and seats 50,000

Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian columns

Christianity: Generalization; Background (Greek Philosophy, Mystery Religions, Judaism

Generalization: Living ethical life results in everlasting bliss in heaven with God, the Ultimate

Background: Augury (interpreting omens), Stoicism (ethical life w/ equality) Neoplatonism (Plato's Form of Goodness); Mystery cults promising afterlife Resurrection (Isis in Egypt, Cybele in Phrygia, & Dionysus of Greece); Division from Judaism

Christianity: Origins, Texts, Spread, and Division

Origins: Jesus of Nazereth born by Virgin Mary, dies by crucifixion (Pontius Pilate), resurrected, documentation 40 yrs after death

Texts: Gospels (Good News)

Spread: via apostles, but mostly Paul (wrote most of New Testaments); Failed in beginning b/c provoked polytheism but after Edict of Milan (313) it grew

Christianity: Jerome, Augustine; Basis of Christian Art, Architecture and symbolism

Jerome: Translates Greek bible into Latin (Vulgate)

Augustine: Confessions (autobiography of conversion); treatises on soul, free will, and meaning of evil; City of God

Christian Art: Immortalized at "Good Shepherd"; Oran (praying figure); catacombs have earliest

Christian Architecture: Hagia Sophia, San Vitale

Symbolism: iconography; Alpha & Omega; chi rho; Matthew (Man), Mark (Lion), Luke (Bull) John (Eagle)

Buddhism: Life of Buddha; Spreading and Division

Life of Buddha: Siddhartha Gautama left wealth and family for life of giving

Spreading: Asoka forced spread division into Hinayana (promoting personal pursuit to nirvana; "Lesser Vehicle") and Mahayana (Buddha is divine with reincarnations; "Great Vehicle")

Buddhism: Philosophy

Wheel of Law (Dharma)
4 Noble Truths: 1) Pain is universal 2) Desire is pain 3)Ceasing to desire relieves pain 4)right conduct leads to release from pain
Eight fold Path

Wheel of Law (Dharma)

4 Noble Truths: 1) Pain is universal 2) Desire is pain 3)Ceasing to desire relieves pain 4)right conduct leads to release from pain

Eight fold Path

Buddhism: Art and Architecture

Architecture: Strupas (ashes divided into 8 burial mounds; beehive-like mount of earth encased in brink or stone [symbolizing World, Mountain, dome of Heave and Womb of Universe]); Great Stupa of Sanchi surrounded by chatras (umbrella-like shapes symbolizing levels of human consciousness w/ chaitya halls like the basilica; pagoda (mulititierd tower)

Art: States of seated Buddha with mudra (symbolic hand gesture); Maitreya Buddha right hand gestures reassurance

Islam: Muhammad, Origins, Spread, Division

Muhammad is prophet form Islam meaning submission (followers called Muslims meaning those who submit)

Origin: At age 40 Muhammad goes into desert where visited by Gabriel and giving recitation for Qur'an (Muslim bible)

Spread: easy rules of conduct; easy conversion with no priest hierarchy, simple monotheism without Trinity

Division: Sunni (majority) and Shi'ite (minority)

Islam: Qur'an and Five Pillars of Islam

Qur'an: 114 suras (chapters) organized longest to shortest; each opens to bismillah (invocation); provides guidelines for worship and specific moral and social conduct; reveals nature of God and inevitability of judgement and resurrection

5 Pillars: 1)Shahadah: repetition of creed 2) Salat: 5xs daily prayer 3)Zakat: charity to poor 4)Sawm: Ramadan and fasting 5) Haj: Pilgrimage to Mecca

Islam: Intellectual & Scholarly Activity; House of Wisdom; General Literature features

Intellect: Muslim philosophers compared theories of Aristotle and Neoplatonist with Islamic precepts; replaced roman numerals with "Arabic numbers"; original contributions of math, medicine, optics, chemistry, geography, philosophy and astronomy

Islamic Lit: poetry and music were intimately related; Literature rich in rhyme (often dominating poem) rhyming prose

House of Wisdom: Dar al-Hikmet; opened by caliph Harun's son; Arabic translators of Greek, Persian, Syriac and Sanskrit manuscripts.

Islamic Art & Architecture

Architecture: Minarets (tall slender towers) where prayers are called "muezzins; Mosque (Muslim church)with Niche (mihrab) on wall facing Mecca; Great Mosque of Cordoba

Art: Avoiding symbols and face of Mohammad; Islamic motifs include geometric, floral, and calligraphic; Kufic (earliest form of Arabic script); illuminated manuscript: fluid strokes provide sole decor (red & yellow dots indicate vowels)

Medieval Europe: Germanic Influence

Art: nomadic art; carpets, jewelry &weapons; cloisonne (enamel-work with semiprecious stones); niello (interlaced snakes); zoomorphic (animal shaped)

Literature: epics of heroism; Beowolf (originates Anglo-Saxons recorded in Old English), The Song of Nibelungen (Burgundian tribe recorded in Old German) and Song of Roland (Frankish in Old French)

Medieval Europe: Charlemagne & Beginning of European Nations

Charlemagne: Charles the Great; desired to restore Roman Empire under christian leadership; Conversion of Saxons, Lombards and Slavic along Danube; pushed Muslims into Spain; 800 Pope Leo III crowns Emperor of Romans; keep control w/ administrators called counts and dukes; learning revival

Medieval Europe: Abbey & Feudalism

Abbey: Benedict monasteries established by Charlemagne; geometrical symmetrical layout; church was place of worship and shrine for relics

Feudalism: After Charles death no tax, single unifying code, or standing army to hold all together; people attaching self to military nobility lead to feudalism (exchange of land for military service [fief or feudum]); vassal owed lord numbered days of fighting; land received in investiture procedure

Medieval Europe: William of Normandy & Invasion into England

William of Normandy: Normandy established by Scandinavians (vikings or Northmam/Norman) invaded Northern Europe and established Normandy (largest fief in France);

Invasion:1066 crossed English channel and defeated Harold (duke of Anglo Saxons) in Battle of Hastings; brought feudalism to England creating Domesday Book; William controlled all w/ aid of Curia Regis (Royal Court); Bayeux Tapestry records conquest;

Medieval Europe: Crusades

Product of idealism and religious zeal; symptom of freedom and new mobility during High Medieval; Pope Urban II preached of taking back Jerusalem; Laypeople and clergy marched across Europe to Byzantine (some plundering and murdering entire Jewish sec of Cologne and Mainz; most just stole because primogeniture left youngest son with not money

I: Recaptured Jerusalem; rest unsuccessful

IV:1204; Venetians took trading posts in Aegean; Greed took over as sacked Constantinople;

Children's Crusade 1212: FAIL

All land taken in Crusade were lost by 1291 Muslims

Medieval Europe: Later Literature, Code of Courtly Love

Literature: Crusades inspired Writings of historical fact, Christian lore, and stirring fiction; in Vernacular; birth of medieval romance (tales of love and adventure)

Courtly Love: Longing of nobleman for unattainable woman with rules of wooing and winning the lady;

Locations on Map:

Arabia: Saudi Arabia

Asia Minor: Turkey

Britain: Island off France

Egypt: Near Red and Mediterranean Sea

Gaul: France

Germany: Northeastern France

Hellas: Island near Crete

Italy: Boot-shaped peninsula

Mesopotamia: near Tigars and Euphrates Rivers

Persia: Present day Iran

Spain: Southern France

Syria: Below Turkey; Touches Mediterranean