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22 Cards in this Set

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What does blood pressure measure?
The pressure or force exerted by the blood on the walls of the arteries in which it is contained.
Why is the diastolic pressure lower than the systolic pressure?
Because the heart is relaxed during diastolic pressure.
What is considered normal blood pressure for an adult?
less than 120/80
Blood pressure for prehypertension
120 - 139 / 80 - 89
Blood pressure for hypertension, stage 1
140-159 / 90-99
Hypertension, stage 2
160+/100+
Why should blood pressure readings always be intepreted using the patient's baseline blood pressure?
An increase or decrease of 20 to 30 mm Hg in a patient's baseline blood pressure is significant, even if it is still w/in the accepted range.
How does age affect blood pressure?
As age increases, so does blood pressure
How do diurnal variations affect the blood pressure?
When one wakens, blood pressure is lower because of decreased metabolism and physical activity during the night. It rises during the day as activity rises.
What are the 2 types of stethoscope chest pieces and the use of each?
diaphragm - more useful for hearing high-pitched sounds, such as lung and bowel sounds
bell - more useful for hearing low-pitched sounds, such as those produced by the heart & vascular system
What are the parts of a sphygmomanometer?
manometer, an inner inflatable bladder surrounded by a covering known as the cuff, and a pressure bulb with a control valve to inflate & deflate the inner bladder. The manometer contains a scale.
List the 2 types of sphygmomanometers
aneroid and mercury
When would a child cuffs be used to measure blood pressure?
For a child or adult w/ small arms 16 - 21 cm circumference
When would an adult cuff be used to measure blood pressure?
For the average normal adult 27-34 cm circumference
When would a thigh cuff be used to measure blood pressure?
For the thigh or for adults w/ very large arms 45-52 cm circumference
Explain how to determine the proper cuff size for a patient.
The inner bladder of the cuff should encircle at least 80% (but not 100%) of the arm circumference and s/b wide enough to cover two thirds of the distance from the axilla to the antecubital space.
What may occur if blood pressure is taken using a cuff that is too small or too large?
too large - reading may be falsely low
too small - reading may be falsely high.
How should the blood pressure be measured if the patient's arm circumference is greater than 50 cm (20 inches)?
Using the forearm and radial artery.
List 5 phases included in the Korotkoff sounds, and describe what type of sound is heard during each phase.
Phase I - first faint but clear tapping sound is heard & it gradually increases in intensity.
Phase II - As cuff continues to deflate, sounds have murmuring or swishing quality
Phase III - with further deflation, sounds become crisper & increase in intensity
Phase IV - sounds become muffled and have soft, blowing quality
Phase V - sounds disappear
List 8 advantages of an automated oscillometric blood pressure device
1. Device can automatically determine how much the cuff should be inflated to reach a pressure that is approx 30 mm hg above systolic
2. Cuff does not have to be manually inflated/deflated
3. Patients brachial artery does not need to be located & bladder cuff does not need to be centered over brachial artery
4. A stethoscope & user listening skills are not required
5. Auto devices are less susceptible to external environmental noise
6. It's digital
7. It allows multiple blood pressures
8. Memory of previous blood pressures
When would a Small adult cuff be used to measure blood pressure?
For the small adult arm 22-26 cm circumference
When would a Large adult cuff be used to measure blood pressure?
For the large adult arm 35 - 44 cm circumference