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30 Cards in this Set

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What is homeostasis?

Homeostasis is the body keeping an internal environment constantly within a tolerable range despite external environmental changes.

What are the 7 tolerable levels in humans?

1. ions


2. blood pressure


3. blood glucose


4. temperature


5. water


6. pH of arterial blood


7. urea in plasma

What do plants have to regulate?

- water balance


- concentration of gases such as concentration of gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen

What body systems regulate homeostasis?

Endocrine System and Nervous System and behaviour

What does the nervous system do and what does the endocrine system spends to these changes?

The nervous system detects change and endocrine system responds to these changes.

What is the role of the Nervous System

- it is control system of the body


- sends, receives and interprets information from body


- monitors and coordinates internal responses and changes in the environment

What is the PNS and what does it do

Peripheral Nervous system:
- all nerve cells outside of CNS
- nerves that contribute to sensors



What are two major parts of the PNS

- somatic nervous system: sends sensory info to CNS
- autonomic nervous system: transmits info from CNS to smooth muscles

What are nerves cells and what do they do?

- basic functional unit of nervous system


- sends electrical impulses to and from CNS and PNS and the effectors

Label the sectons and the things at the end. What sort of neuron is it and why?

Label the sectons and the things at the end. What sort of neuron is it and why?

A) nucleus
B) cell body
C) axon
D) myelin sheath
end bit is nerve endings
It is a motor neuron because it is multipolar

Name the 3 types of neurons

Motor
Sensory
Interneuron

What does a motor neuron do

Takes message from CNS to glands/muscles
multipolar
effector neuron

What does a sensory neuron do

receives message and sends to CNS
unipolar
affector neuron

What does a inter neuron do

Sends message around CNS
multipolar

what is a reflex response

A response you have no control over. Used to help save your life. Goes to spinal cord instead of brain and back to save time

What are neurotransmitters?

brain chemicals that communicate information throughout brain and body. relay signals between nerve cells and neurons

Name the five parts of the stimulus response model in order

stimulus
receptor
control centre
effector
response

Name five sense organs

smell


touch


hear


see


taste

what does a mechanoreceptor do

detects things to do with pressure or disturbance

what does a thermoreceptor do

detects temperature

what does a photoreceptor do

detects light

what does a chemoreceptor do

detects air and hormones

what is negative feedback? what is an example of negative feedback and temperature?

Negative feedback is the counteracting of the stimulus. E.g. temperature increases therefore homeostasis occurs and temperature decreases

What does the endocrine system use and what does it do?

The endocrine system uses chemical signals for cell to cell communication to coordinate function of cells. It is a long response and uses hormones which are long lasting

Where are hormones produced and why?

Endocrine glands
to maintain homeostasis

How are hormones transported? What do they do?

secreted directly into blood stream, transported through body via bloodstream. Acts on organs and tissues but are specific. Only a particular stimulus can trigger a particular set of hormones and only a particular cell will be triggered.

What are endocrine glands? What glands and other part of the CNS work together to maintain homeostasis?

organs/tissues that excrete hormones


pituitary, pineal gland, thalamus and hypothalamus are all closely connected.

What is the hypothalamus

connectd to pituitary gland, produces hormones and controls release of some hormones from pituitary gland.
it receives info from rest of body about state of physical wellbeing and is the master control of the endocrine system

What hormone does the pituitary gland produce and what is it responsible for?

growth hormone
regulates:
-growth
- lactation
- reproductive state
- skin pigmentation
-fat tissue
- kidney function
- activity of thyroid and adrenal gland

Sum up homeostasis

homeostasis is the act of balancing and if you cannot balancce then death will occur. It is maintained by negative feedback mechanisms as well as the endocrine system and nervous system