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35 Cards in this Set

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The 14 Points Summary

No Secret Treaties


Disarmament


Self Determination


End to Trade Barriers


France Liberated (alsace Lorraine given back)


League of Nations set up

Wilsons aims and why

Don't want to punish Germany



Only been in war since April 1917,damage + casualties were lower and he wanted peace and to stop wars of the future



Didn't want USAs resources in a war with Europe


Didn't want Germany to want revenge on the USA in future

Clemenceaus aims and why

Hated Germans, wanted to punish them completely



Had large areas of land destroyed and over 1 million deaths. Wanted to cripple Germany so they covent threaten then again



Pressured by the people of France to take action

Lloyd Georges aims and why

Balanced. Wanted Germany punished but not too harshly



Bitter towards Germany so wanted to make them pay but knew if they were too harsh Germany would seek vengeance



Wanted to continue trade links with Germany

Date of Treaty of Versailles


What did the Germans refer to it as and why?

June 1919



Diktat, it told them what to do without negotiation

Main terms of Treaty

War guilt clause



Army


Limited to 100k, conscription banned, had to be volunteers, no armored vehicles subs or aircraft, only 6 battle ships and 30 small ships


Demilitarisation of the Rhineland



Reparations



Loss of territories


Alsace Lorraine to France, Polish corridor, Upper silesia, West pressie and posen to Poland, North Schleswig to Denmark, Saar and danzig ran by league


Most colonies in Africa given to league



Anschluss



LoN Set up

6

German Reaction to Treaty

Unjust war guilt clause to on all on them


Feared reparations would Cripple already tattered economy


Loss of territories blow to pride and economic resources, felt it was earned land


Army limitations upset pride and left them powerless


Insulted with no league invitation


Some now lived in foreign nations


Suffered huge economic crisis which led to hyper inflation

Strengths +Weaknesses of league

+


Brought peace to Europe


Germany were much harsher on Russia with the Treaty of Brest Litovsk 1917 where they lost a third of all land


They still let Germany remain one whole country, in some way lenient to them



-


Left Germans with lots of grievances


Not afford reparations


Britain + France fell out over reparations payments


Harsh so they'd want revenge but not harsh enough to make them unable to enact revenge


Wilson pinned too much faith on the League

Why wasn't the USA part of the league?

US Senate rejected the idea, believing in isolationism

Main members

Britain


France


Italy


Japan

Why weren't the USSR or Germany in the League?

USSR - After the communist revolution they were in a conflicting civil war



Germany - weren't invited

4 Main Aims of the Covenant

Discourage Aggression


Encourage Cooperation in Business + Trade


Encourage Disarmament


Improve living and working conditions

Why was the USA not being part of the League a huge blow?

1. The leagues inventor was American and he had the biggest idea on how to run it


2. The US was the only nation with the resources and influence to make it work


3. Britain and France weren't in good positions to lead with their nations and economies weakened by the war


4. Britain and France had other interests and doubted it's effectiveness, not truly believing in Disarmament

What was the policy whereby nations should protect one another from threats to stop war prospects?

Collective Security

Organisation of League

Council


Assembly


Permanent Court of International Justice


Secretariat


International Labour Organisation


Commissions

Council features

Council4 permanent membersMet up to 5 times a yearSolve disputesEach member had a veto 3 powers - moral condemnation basically guilt tripping, economic or financial sanctions so refusing to trade with them, military force so armed forces of members are used against aggressor

Assembly features

Leagues parliament and debate chamber in Geneva



Each country send a representative



Meet once a year and recommended actions to council - needed a unanimous vote



Vote in new members, temp council members, budget and general ideas

Permanent Court of International Justice features

Based in the Hague



Key part of settling disputes peacefully



Made up of judges from member nations



Gave legal advice to assembly and council and made decisions on border disputes



No way to enforce rulings

Secretariat features

Civil service



Kept meeting records and prepped reports for different organisations of the league



Carried out paper work and admin for the league

International Labour Organisation features

Aimed to achieve aim of improving working and living conditions world wide



Brought together representatives from governments, employers and works and collected stats and info on standards to set. Tried to persuade member nations to adopt it's suggestions

Border disputes in the 20s (extra stuff)

Vilna 1920 - Failure since they had no army to enforce their request to Poland



Upper Silesia 1921 - Kind of a success in the sense that they just split the land between Germany and Poland though Poland weren't happy



Åland Islands 1921 - Success - geographically Finnish but wanted to be Swedish, face it to Finland but gave them rights to keep Swedish traditions and demilitarised if to stop Swedish threat



Corfu 1923 - Failure - Italy invaded Corfu, backed down to mussolini and gave Italy all they wanted, lots of money, and did nothing for Greece



Bulgaria 1925 - Success - Greece invaded Bulgaria, they asked then to leave and made Bulgaria pay compensation which they did

Why was the League not powerful enough?

Britain and France crippled by ww1



Economic / military sanctions only worked if a powerful nation such as the USA was applying them, most were too busy rebuilding



GERMANY and RUSSIA, two powerful nations weren't allowed at first



No army of its own and nations didn't want to commit their troops



Ineffective powers



Couldn't enforce decisions



Everyone had to agree on the assembly and council, making it hard to pass stuff, and then nations cod simply veto stuff that went against them

The Ruhr

Germany failed to keep up with reparations so France invaded the Ruhr industrial area and the league just left it and didn't intervene

Key International Agreements in the 20s

Dawes Plan 1924- USA lend Germany money to avert economic crisis by helping reparations payments



Locarno Treaties 1925 - Germany accepts is western borders set at Versailles and so clarified European birders and gave France a sense of security, made without consulting the league since they doubted it's effectiveness



Kellogg Briand Pact 1928- 65 nations agreed not to use force to settle disputes though there was nothing saying what would happen if someone broke this



Young Plan 1929 - reduced Germanys reparations payments by 75% and allowed them to have 59 years to pay



'26 Germany invited into leagye

Effect of depression

Dawes and young plans were sacked off since America's economy got ******



Many other nations got hit hard by it, since they got money from the USA, eg Japan, sparking them to take over Manchuria, and Italy, encouraging Mussolini to build his empire further, and Germany, leading them to elect Adolf the Great who wanted to over turn the ToV

Manchuria key events

Sept 1931 - Japs own south Manchuria railway and claimed China sabotaged it so used it as a pretext to invade Manchuria


Feb '32- Japan set up puppet government of manchukuo


Summer' 32- Japan bomb shanghai, China appeal to league, Japan defend saying they were spring China who were in anarchy after the depression.


Lytton is sent out to investigate, producing the Lytton report after a year by which time the invasion and occupation was complete.


Report says they acted unlawfully and should give Manchuria back but they just refused and invaded the rest of China as the Lytton report was approved 42 to 1.


Japan leave the league and stay in Manchuria.


Causes of Manchuria

Wall Street Crash - US protectionist policies led to a loss in trade and a drop in silk and rice prices (their main export)


ToV - Japan didn't get the territory they wanted to wanted to expand


Raw materials - Manchuria was rich in the ones Japan lacked so it provided a market for Japanese goods and gave them more.


Japan claimed that china was in anarchy after the depression that they had to invade in self defence.



How they tried to deal with Manchuria

The tried to impose sanctions on the Japanese but the USA was their main trade partner, so it meant nothing



Going to ban arms sales but feared Japan would retaliate and start a war



Britain and France didn't want to use their navies or risk war with Japan, when the only 2 nations with the resources to remove the Japanese, USSR and USA, weren't even in the league



Asked them to leave with the lytton report but they just refused and stayed

Why did Manchuria cause the failure of the league?

Showed how slow the league was to respond and how nations could do what they wanted with time to prepare before being challenged


Showed the league up as pushovers and weak willed, so powers could just ignore them


Made Japan leave the league, forfeiting their main Asian influence


Showed the league as powerless if a strong nation pursued aggressive policies, and it would get away with it Set a precedent for other nations to take risks, eg. Hitler and Mussolini

Abyssinia key events part 1

1896- Italy invade abyssinia and are defeated by tribesmen


DEC 1934- Mussolini wanted revenge and so when there was a dispute between Italian and abyssinian soldiers at the Walwal Oasis 80 km inside of abyssinia, he claimed it was Italian territory and so prepped an invasion


Leader Haile Selassie pleads to the league


1935 Mussolini ships and army to Africa.


Britain and France didn't want to ruin relations with Mussolini since he was their strongest ally against Hitler, and they'd signed the stresa pact to stand United if Hitler threatened them after conscription and rearmament



They tried to make a plan to give him some of abyssinia, after 8 months, producing a report saying it was neither sides fault for the incident



Italy invade in October 1935


The league impose sanctions on arms, loans and rubber tin and metals. They hesitated when sectioning coal, fearing it would ruin support off the US and this delay rendered the sections ineffective.

Abyssinia key events part 2

All they had to do was close the Suez Canal which was Italys main supply route into abyssinia but they feared that it would lead to a war, and it proved fatal to the campaign



Hoare Laval Pact Dec 1935- British and French foreign ministers planned to give Mussolini 2/3 of the land in return for him calling off the attack, without consulting the league or selassie. Details were leaked to press and it was seen as treachery, damaged sanctions talks which lot momentum and made the USA disgusted in them so stepped up exports to Italy



7 March 1936- Adolf marches troops obi Rhineland, Britain and France made no actions and now France had no initiative to help abyssinia due to its own concerns



May '36- ITALY took Addis Ababa, the capital, exile Selassie, and annexed whole country. Collective Security failed.



Nov 1936 Mussolini and Hitler sign Rome Berlin Axis

How did they try to deal with Abyssinia

Tried to keep relations good - since Italy were best ally against Hitler and due to the Stresa Pact



Arms and Loan Sanctions, but not in coal due to US relations

Why did Abyssinia lead to the downfall of the League?

Desperate to maintain good relations with Mussolini to stand against Hitler, they didn't even try to initially sort out the problem, making them look like pushovers and weak willed



Hoare Laval pact made them look self interested, went against what the league stood for and made people lose faith in the League and led to the USA not backing them, who even went as far as to speed up trading with Italy.



Sanctions discussions lost momentum too



Hitler invaded the Rhineland, breaking the ToV and Mussolini annexed Abyssinia - final nail in the coffin, collective security had failed and the league collapsed


Led to the signing of the Rome Berlin axis of 1936



League membership essay

No USA USSR or Germany



USA had the idea for the league and Wilson was the only person who truly believed in its capabilities.



USA had the resources to keep it running whereas France and Britain were crippled by the war and self interested in rebuilding



USA weren't there to help impose sanctions at Manchuria or Abyssinia



USSR were a superpower capable enough of removing Japan from Abyssinia

League Structure essay

Powers were ineffective, moral condemnation never worked as seen in Manchuria and at Vilna 1920.



Needed a majority votes to pass things and if there was one disagreement, that party could veto a decision and cause it to be ineffective



Sactions didn't work without a powerful nation behind it



Permanent Court of International Justice had no way of enforcing it's rulings with no army



Power balance, key nations had too much influence, eg backing down to Mussolini at corfu and Abyssinia