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33 Cards in this Set

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What were the beliefs during the Stone Age?

-trepanation to cure head injuries such as migraines


-believed people were ill due to supernatural occurrences

How did trepanation work?

surgically boring holes into the skull

What was it like in Ancient Egypt?

-channels within the body transported thing


-identified important organs but didn't know what they did

Individuals during Ancient Greece?

Aristotle: observation was important


- heart was important organ


-connected blood vessels to heart


-influenced other scientists about blood circulation

Where was an important place in Ancient Greece?

Alexandria:


-Herophilos : understanding the pulse


-Erasistratoe: studied anatomy, discovered parts of the brain, held public viewings of dissections

What was surgery like in the Roman Army?

-carried out amputations


-they had to:


>know what to do


>steady hands


>young and skilful


>handle pressure

What instruments did the Roman Army use?

-iron blades


-scalpels


-forceps


-spatulas


-bronze instruments

Anatomy in Rome :

-no human dissections so Galen dissected apes and pigs as they closely resembled humans


-Galen proved the brain controlled the body

What were Galen's mistakes in anatomy?

-thought the brain was linked to a network of nerves and vessels


-incorrectly made a connection between the liver and the stomach


-thought blood flowed from right to left via invisible pores


-the jaw was in 2 parts, when it's actually 1

Surgery and Anatomy in the Medieval Period?

-hardly any anaesthetic except opium


-wider focus on surgery as the war led to more opportunities


-suffered from blood loss

Renaissance: who was Ambroise Pare?

-put an ointment of his own on the gunshot wounds


-methods worked in comparison to cauterising


-idea of "ligatures"


>tied cut veins and arteries to stop bleeding

What opposition did Pare face?

-people were jealous


-snobbery among doctors


-critisiced him bc he wasn't a doctor


-people don't like change

what were Pare's limits?

-no anaesthetic; agonising operations


-no complex internal operations


-surgery was painful and dangerous


-blood loss


-ligatures could get infected

Who was William Harvey?

-focused on the blood and heart


-critisiced Galen's ideas


-did experiments

What were Harvey's ideas?

-blood circulates around the body


-used info to show how much blood was pumped and how it could not be absorbed by the body


-insisted on small channels connecting the veins and arteries


-blood flows in one direction

How did Harvey criticise Galen?

-Galen thought septum had invisible popes but Harvey said it was too thick


-G said veins carried both blood and air but Harvey pointed veins only carried blood


-rejected the idea of Galen's idea of blood being "burnt up"

Who opposed Harvey?

-doctors and scientists found it hard to come to terms with his discoveries

What were Harvey's limits?

-couldn't prove his theories


-couldn't see connection to veins and arteries


-not advanced

Why was Harvey important?

-showed blood flows around body


-heart acts as a pump


-no other organ is needed to manufacture new blood


-helped with future developments in surgery

Who was Andreas Vesalius?

-based his work on Galen but started to see mistakes in his work


-proved Galen's work to be incorrect by doing human dissections


-wrote a detailed observational book called the Fabrica

How did Vesalius disprove Galen?

-the jaw bone is 1 bone not 2


-sternum has 3 not 7 parts


-liver does not have 5 parts or lobes


-septum of the heart is not porous

Why was Vesalius important?

-helped doctors improve their own work by his dissections


-split drawings into sections to help improve understanding


-generalist, others were specialists

Problems during 19th Century

•pain


•infection


•blood loss

How was the problem of pain solved?

James Simpson


>1847 used chloroform to ease child birth


-preferred it to ether as ether irritated the lungs

What was the opposition against James Simpson?

-against chloroform as uncertainty about quantities


-others thought it was unnatural to ease child birth

How was the problem with antiseptics solved?

Joseph Lister


-realised infections killed patients


-in 1867 applied germ theory to own work


-used carbolic acid to kill germs off surgeons hands

What opposition did Lister face?

-many surgeons opposed Lister's methods


-Carbolic spray seemed extreme


-Lister always changed his techniques

How did the problem of aseptic surgery get solved?

William Halsted


-focused on keeping germs away


-aseptic led to procedures such as washing hands and wearing rubber gloves

How was the problem of blood loss overcome?

Lister improved on Pare's ligatures by using sterilised instruments

Role of war in Modern World:

-health of soldiers improved


-William Rontgen discovered X-Rays(1895)


-D.H.Robertson used sodium citrate to stop blood from clotting


-Archibald McIndoe rehabilitated badly burned aircrew


-penicillin was used on mass scale

Role of Science and Technology:

-1908: blood transplant


-1903: William Einthoven invented cardiograph


-1914: WH Howell first to use microscope with u.v light


-1931: electron microscope


1957: first pace maker

Science and Technology cont:

-expensive equipment finically critical


-1954: first kidney transplant


>further research found rejection should be prevented by radiation


-1958: discovered imuran which stopped rejection

Role of Individuals:

-McIndoe: qualified doctor and specialised plastic surgeon


-William Rontgen: x-Rays, led to Marie Curie getting 30 radiology machines


-Christian Bernard: performed first heart transplant in Sourh Africa